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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ozren Hasan; Natalia Smrkulj; Slobodan Miko; Dea Brunović; +2 Authors

    The upper part of the Krka River estuary and Prokljan Lake are a specific example of a well-stratified estuarine environment in a submerged river canyon. Here, we reconstructed the geomorphological evolution of the area and classified the data gathered in the study, integrating multibeam echosounder data, backscatter echosounder data, side-scan sonar morpho-bathymetric surveys, and acoustic sub-bottom profiling, with the addition of ground-truthing and sediment analyses. This led to the successful classification of the bottom sediments using the object-based image analysis method. Additional inputs to the multibeam echosounder data improved the segmentation of the seafloor classification, geology, and morphology of the surveyed area. This study uncovered and precisely defined distinct geomorphological features, specifically submerged tufa barriers and carbonate mounds active during the Holocene warm periods, analogous to recent tufa barriers that still exist and grow in the upstream part of the Krka River. Fine-grained sediments, classified as estuarine sediments, hold more organic carbon than coarse-grained sediments sampled on barriers. A good correlation of organic carbon with silt sediments allowed the construction of a prediction map for marine sedimentary carbon in this estuarine/lake environment using multibeam echosounder data. Our findings highlight the importance of additional inputs to multibeam echosounder data to achieve the most accurate results.

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    Authors: Ntouskos V.; Iliopoulou C.; Karantzalos K.;
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    Authors: Quintana, Josep; Campos, Ricard; Karantzalos, Konstantinos; Wintersteller, Paul;

    This document is a final overall report on the assessment and evaluation of the NEANIAS UNDERWATER services mainly from user perspective, but also including their technical assessment. Assessment and evaluations processes have been performed for each of the UNDERWATER services release cycles (from release #1 to the latest release #3) involving users internal to the NEANIAS consortium as well as external to the consortium, mainly belonging to academic and research institutes. Also, user feedbacks have been collected and, finally, a technical assessment has been performed thanks to template checklists made available by WP7.

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  • Authors: Christian Maushake; Ulrike Schiller; J.M. Preston;

    Dividing sonar images into regions that have similar seabeds is often done by expert interpretation. Automated classification systems are becoming more widely used. This paper describes techniques, based on image amplitudes and texture, that lead to useful and practical automated segmentation of multibeam images. Seabed (or riverbed or lakebed) type affects amplitudes and texture, but so do system operating details, water conditions, and survey geometry. Effects of the last three must be compensated to isolate the effects of seabed type. Images from multibeam surveys are accompanied by bathymetric data from which grazing angles of all sonar footprints can be calculated. By compiling tables of amplitude against range and grazing angle, systematic changes in amplitude with these two variables can be removed consistently. If sound absorption varies, though, this empirical method compensates with some average absorption and local effects get lost. This paper explores using independent absorption data for calculated range compensation, and shows that the accuracy of maps of acoustic classes is thereby improved.

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    Authors: B.R. Biffard; Stephen F. Bloomer; N.R. Chapman; J.M. Preston;

    Acoustic seabed classification with single-beam sounders involves discriminating among bottom types using attributes of their echoes. One attribute that is rich in sediment information is the duration of these echoes, but it needs to be interpreted with care because it depends on water depth, seabed slope and sounder beamwidth, as well as on seabed characteristics. The interpretation relies on an equation for echo duration, which is the sum of four terms: • Spreading time across the seabed from first contact to the periphery of the beam width. • Duration of the transmit pulse. • Time to penetrate into the sediment to a depth from which volume scatter is no longer significant. • Earlier start times due to shorter path lengths if there is macro-roughness such as rocks and macroalgae. Only the first of these depends on depth or slope. This dependence must be compensated to make maps of seabed classes, rather than maps of classes influenced by bathymetry. Working with echoes collected at many transducer altitudes and tilts over homogeneous patches of seabed, this equation is verified. Being able to predict echo durations from a standard seabed (the standard echo length, SEL) allows effective compensation for the depth each echo came from. Seabed slope strongly affects echo durations, shapes, and amplitudes. Provided the slope is not so severe that there is no specular return, the effect of slope on the echo can be compensated in the same manner. Echo durations from rough seabeds can often exceed the SEL through an effect that can be modeled as widening of the transducer beam. In some cases, the difference between SEL and observed echo durations, called the residual echo duration, can be used to determine the seabed sediment without the need for ground truth.

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/oceans...
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/oceans...
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  • Authors: Arthur C. R. Gleason; J.M. Preston; Steve Bloomer;

    Single-beam acoustic seabed classification continues to be a popular method for mapping seabeds and their sediments. Modern methods can generate maps of acoustic classes that are useful and reasonably accurate. Research toward improved methods continues. A continuing impediment to this research is ranking the accuracy of maps produced by new methods. Non-acoustic data, or ground truth, is usually sparse compared to the detail of the acoustic survey, which can mean that ranking maps for accuracy can be inconclusive. Here we present a new tool for ranking classification maps, namely the reproducibility of acoustic classes from repeated surveys of the same area on different days. Methods that have high reproducibility achieve that by capturing echo characteristics that are strongly influenced by seabed type while suppressing details that are driven by sea state or the water column. Six surveys, done with a 50 kHz sounder over a pair of transects near Miami, FL, USA, between 1 May and 13 August 2007, were used to evaluate two questions. First, how reproducible were classifications of this dataset using QTC IMPACT™ (Quester Tangent Corporation)? Second, can classification be improved with adjustments to the standard IMPACT processing? Reproducibility was quantified with the overall accuracy and Kappa statistics, which are both derived from the confusion matrix whose rows and columns are numbers of sites with particular class assignments under distinct circumstances.

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    Authors: Marcelo Peres de Pinho; Lauro Antônio Saint Pastous Madureira; Lauro Julio Calliari; S. Weigert; +1 Authors

    ABSTRACT. The relationship between instability indices and extreme daily rainfall over state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is studied, as well as the main differences between extreme and ordinary rainfall events. A total of 105 extreme and 342 ordinary rainfall events were identified in 2000-2009 period. Composites of atmospheric fields for up to two days prior to the events showed some important features that may be considered precursors for extreme rainfall in this region: a surface low-pressure center over Paraguay and northern Argentina, a more intense northerly flow in this region and, consequently, a large moisture flux convergence over southern Brazil, specially over state of Rio Grande do Sul. Correlations between instability indices and extreme rainfall showed statistically significant liner relationships for almost all instability indices. However, the small degree of correlations does not support any quantitative rainfall forecasting methodology based only on instability indices. Keywords : rainfall forecasting, atmospheric instability, composites, correlation. RESUMO. A relacao entre os indices de instabilidade e a chuva extrema sobre o estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e estudada neste trabalho, bem como as principais diferencas entre eventos comuns e extremos de chuva diaria. Um total de 105 eventos extremos e 342 comuns foram identificados dentro do periodo de 2000 a 2009. Compostos de campos atmosfericos para ate dois dias anteriores aos eventos mostraram caracteristicas importantes que podem ser consideradas precursoras a chuva extrema nesta regiao: um centro de baixa pressao em superficie sobre o Paraguai e o nordeste da Argentina, um escoamento de norte mais intenso nesta regiao e, consequentemente, maior convergencia do fluxo de umidade sobre o sul do Brasil, especialmente sobre o estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As correlacoes entre os indices de instabilidade e a chuva extrema mostraram relacoes lineares estatisticamente significativas para quase todos os indices. Entretanto, o pequeno grau das correlacoes nao suporta qualquer metodologia de previsao quantitativa de chuva baseada somente em indices de instabilidade. Palavras-chave : previsao de chuva, instabilidade atmosferica, compostos, correlacao.

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    Brazilian Journal of Geophysics
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Brazilian Journal of Geophysics
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    Authors: Ainslie, M.A.; Walree, P.A. van; Boek, W.;

    The performance of a sonar system operating in shallow water is closely linked to the properties of the seabed. At the same time the sensitivity of the acoustic signal (or background) to sediment properties gives an acoustic sensor the potential to measure precisely those properties that are needed to estimate sonar performance. Of particular interest in this context is reverberation from low frequency active sonar (LFAS), because of its wide area potential, and the single beam echo sounder, because of its almost universal availability. The potential of these two instruments to provide the necessary data for the purpose of LFAS performance prediction is explored. Particular emphasis is placed on exploiting their complementary nature. Relevant questions include: The echo sounder measures properties of the uppermost few centimetres of sediment. How can this be made relevant to LFAS, which is sensitive to properties on a depth scale of metres rather than centimetres? The echo sounder measures properties directly beneath the ship, and at normal incidence. How can this information be used when the LFAS attention is focussed on sound travelling several kilometres, at angles close to grazing incidence? The information content of signals from the two sensors is discussed, with a view to answering these and related questions.

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    The performance of a sonar system operating in shallow water is closely linked to the properties of the seabed. At the same time the sensitivity of the acoustic signal (or background) to sediment properties gives an acoustic sensor the potential to measure precisely those properties that are needed to estimate sonar performance. Of particular interest in this context is reverberation from low frequency active sonar (LFAS), because of its wide area potential, and the single beam echo sounder, because of its almost universal availability. The potential of these two instruments to provide the necessary data for the purpose of LFAS performance prediction is explored. Particular emphasis is placed on exploiting their complementary nature. Relevant questions include: The echo sounder measures properties of the uppermost few centimetres of sediment. How can this be made relevant to LFAS, which is sensitive to properties on a depth scale of metres rather than centimetres? The echo sounder measures properties directly beneath the ship, and at normal incidence. How can this information be used when the LFAS attention is focussed on sound travelling several kilometres, at angles close to grazing incidence? The information content of signals from the two sensors is discussed, with a view to answering these and related questions.

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    Authors: Innangi, Sara; Tonielli, Renato; Romagnoli, Claudia; Gabriella, Di Martino; +1 Authors

    In this work, the seabed mapping of the shallow-water areas of Lampedusa, Lampione and Linosa, belonging to the "Pelagie Islands" Marine Protected Area, is presented. Three surveys were carried out (namely "Lampedusa2015", "Linosa2016" and "BioGeoLin") to collect bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data through the use of a Reson SeaBat 7125 high-resolution multibeam system. Ground-truth data, in the form of grab samples and diver video-observations, were also collected during the surveys. Sediment samples were analyzed for grain size, while video images were analyzed and described revealing the acoustic seabed and other bio-physical characteristics. Three seabed classification maps, including sediment types and seagrass distribution, were produced using Remote Sensing Object Based Image Analysis by integrating information derived from backscatter data and bathy-morphological features, validated by ground-truth data. The seabed maps, including sediment types and habitat distribution, contribute to the knowledge of the peculiar marine ecosystem observed at the islands.

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    Conference object . 2019
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    https://doi.org/10.1109/metros...
    Conference object . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ozren Hasan; Natalia Smrkulj; Slobodan Miko; Dea Brunović; +2 Authors

    The upper part of the Krka River estuary and Prokljan Lake are a specific example of a well-stratified estuarine environment in a submerged river canyon. Here, we reconstructed the geomorphological evolution of the area and classified the data gathered in the study, integrating multibeam echosounder data, backscatter echosounder data, side-scan sonar morpho-bathymetric surveys, and acoustic sub-bottom profiling, with the addition of ground-truthing and sediment analyses. This led to the successful classification of the bottom sediments using the object-based image analysis method. Additional inputs to the multibeam echosounder data improved the segmentation of the seafloor classification, geology, and morphology of the surveyed area. This study uncovered and precisely defined distinct geomorphological features, specifically submerged tufa barriers and carbonate mounds active during the Holocene warm periods, analogous to recent tufa barriers that still exist and grow in the upstream part of the Krka River. Fine-grained sediments, classified as estuarine sediments, hold more organic carbon than coarse-grained sediments sampled on barriers. A good correlation of organic carbon with silt sediments allowed the construction of a prediction map for marine sedimentary carbon in this estuarine/lake environment using multibeam echosounder data. Our findings highlight the importance of additional inputs to multibeam echosounder data to achieve the most accurate results.

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    Authors: Ntouskos V.; Iliopoulou C.; Karantzalos K.;
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    Authors: Quintana, Josep; Campos, Ricard; Karantzalos, Konstantinos; Wintersteller, Paul;

    This document is a final overall report on the assessment and evaluation of the NEANIAS UNDERWATER services mainly from user perspective, but also including their technical assessment. Assessment and evaluations processes have been performed for each of the UNDERWATER services release cycles (from release #1 to the latest release #3) involving users internal to the NEANIAS consortium as well as external to the consortium, mainly belonging to academic and research institutes. Also, user feedbacks have been collected and, finally, a technical assessment has been performed thanks to template checklists made available by WP7.

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  • Authors: Christian Maushake; Ulrike Schiller; J.M. Preston;

    Dividing sonar images into regions that have similar seabeds is often done by expert interpretation. Automated classification systems are becoming more widely used. This paper describes techniques, based on image amplitudes and texture, that lead to useful and practical automated segmentation of multibeam images. Seabed (or riverbed or lakebed) type affects amplitudes and texture, but so do system operating details, water conditions, and survey geometry. Effects of the last three must be compensated to isolate the effects of seabed type. Images from multibeam surveys are accompanied by bathymetric data from which grazing angles of all sonar footprints can be calculated. By compiling tables of amplitude against range and grazing angle, systematic changes in amplitude with these two variables can be removed consistently. If sound absorption varies, though, this empirical method compensates with some average absorption and local effects get lost. This paper explores using independent absorption data for calculated range compensation, and shows that the accuracy of maps of acoustic classes is thereby improved.

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    Authors: B.R. Biffard; Stephen F. Bloomer; N.R. Chapman; J.M. Preston;

    Acoustic seabed classification with single-beam sounders involves discriminating among bottom types using attributes of their echoes. One attribute that is rich in sediment information is the duration of these echoes, but it needs to be interpreted with care because it depends on water depth, seabed slope and sounder beamwidth, as well as on seabed characteristics. The interpretation relies on an equation for echo duration, which is the sum of four terms: • Spreading time across the seabed from first contact to the periphery of the beam width. • Duration of the transmit pulse. • Time to penetrate into the sediment to a depth from which volume scatter is no longer significant. • Earlier start times due to shorter path lengths if there is macro-roughness such as rocks and macroalgae. Only the first of these depends on depth or slope. This dependence must be compensated to make maps of seabed classes, rather than maps of classes influenced by bathymetry. Working with echoes collected at many transducer altitudes and tilts over homogeneous patches of seabed, this equation is verified. Being able to predict echo durations from a standard seabed (the standard echo length, SEL) allows effective compensation for the depth each echo came from. Seabed slope strongly affects echo durations, shapes, and amplitudes. Provided the slope is not so severe that there is no specular return, the effect of slope on the echo can be compensated in the same manner. Echo durations from rough seabeds can often exceed the SEL through an effect that can be modeled as widening of the transducer beam. In some cases, the difference between SEL and observed echo durations, called the residual echo duration, can be used to determine the seabed sediment without the need for ground truth.

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/oceans...
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