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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Seema Paul; Jesper Oppelstrup; Roger Thunvik; John Mango Magero; +2 Authors

    This study explored two-dimensional (2D) numerical hydrodynamic model simulations of Lake Victoria. Several methods were developed in Matlab to build the lake topography. Old depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with more recent extensive data to produce a smooth topographical model. The lake free surface numerical model in the COMSOL Multiphysics (CM) software was implemented using bathymetry and vertically integrated 2D shallow water equations. Validated by measurements of mean lake water level, the model predicted very low mean flow speeds and was thus close to being linear and time invariant, allowing long-time simulations with low-pass filtered inflow data. An outflow boundary condition allowed an accurate simulation to achieve the lake&rsquo s steady state level. The numerical accuracy of the linear measurement of lake water level was excellent.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Fluidsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Fluids
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Fluids
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Fluids
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Fluidsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Fluids
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Fluids
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Fluids
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gal Akrish; P.B. Smit; Marcel Zijlema; Ad Reniers;

    Wave forecasting in ocean and coastal waters commonly relies on spectral models based on the spectral action balance equation. These models assume that different wave components are statistically independent and as a consequence cannot resolve wave interference due to statistical correlation between crossing waves, as may be found in, for instance, a focal zone. This study proposes a statistical model for the evolution of wave fields over non-uniform currents and bathymetry that retains the information on the correlation between different wave components. To this end, the quasi-coherent model (Smit & Janssen, J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 43, 2013, pp. 1741-1758) is extended to allow for wave-current interactions. The outcome is a generalized action balance model that predicts the evolution of the wave statistics over variable media, while preserving the effect of wave interferences. Two classical examples of wave-current interaction are considered to demonstrate the statistical contribution of wave interferences: (1) swell field propagation over a jet-like current and (2) the interaction of swell waves with a vortex ring. In both examples cross-correlation terms lead to development of prominent interference structures, which significantly change the wave statistics. Comparison with results of the SWAN model demonstrates that retention of cross-correlation terms is essential for accurate prediction of wave statistics in shear-current-induced focal zones. Environmental Fluid Mechanics

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Journal of F...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Fluid Mechanics
    Article
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Fluid Mechanics
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Journal of F...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Fluid Mechanics
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Fluid Mechanics
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Matthew H. Alford; James B. Girton; Gunnar Voet; Glenn S. Carter; +2 Authors

    We report the first direct turbulence observations in the Samoan Passage (SP), a 40 km wide notch in the South Pacific bathymetry through which flows most of the water supplying the North Pacific abyssal circulation. The observed turbulence is 1000 to 10,000 times typical abyssal levels —strong enough to completely mix away the densest water entering the passage—confirming inferences from previous coarser temperature and salinity sections. Accompanying towed measurements of velocity and temperature with horizontal resolution of about 250 m indicate the dominant processes responsible for the turbulence. Specifically, the flow accelerates substantially at the primary sill within the passage, reaching speeds as great as 0.55 m s−1. A strong hydraulic response is seen, with layers first rising to clear the sill and then plunging hundreds of meters downward. Turbulence results from high shear at the interface above the densest fluid as it descends and from hydraulic jumps that form downstream of the sill. In addition to the primary sill, other locations along the multiple interconnected channels through the Samoan Passage also have an effect on the mixing of the dense water. In fact, quite different hydraulic responses and turbulence levels are observed at seafloor features separated laterally by a few kilometers, suggesting that abyssal mixing depends sensitively on bathymetric details on small scales.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geophysical Research...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Geophysical Research Letters
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geophysical Research...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Geophysical Research Letters
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Çelikkiran, Ahmet;

    Ülkemizin üç tarafı denizlerle çevrili olup, yaklaşık 900 km²'yi geçen göllere, 7000 km'yi gecen kıyılara, yaklaşık 1200 adet gölet ve baraja sahip bulunmaktadır. Deniz projelerinin arttığı bu dönemde hidrografik ölçmeler değer kazanmıştır. Hidrografi; denizler, nehirler ve diğer sular ile bunları çevreleyen kıyı şeridindeki seyir emniyeti ve kolaylığı için bilinmesi gereken bütün temel unsurları ölçen, inceleyen ve bunları denizcilerin kullanmalarına elverişli bir şekilde yayınlayan bilim dalıdır (BKK, 1973). Ülkemizdeki tersane, tüp geçit inşaatları gibi mühendislik projelerinde aktif olarak hidrografik ölçmeler yapılmaktadır. Bunun dışında akıntı modellemesi, dalga boyu tespiti, deniz kirliliği, atık su deniz deşarjı, doğalgaz ve su boru hatları gibi birçok çalışmada çeşitli ölçümler yapılmaktadır.Ölçüm aletlerinin senkronize bir şekilde kullanılarak hidrografik ölçme yapılması ve sonuçların test edilmesi oldukça zordur. Gerekli hassasiyetin yakalanabilmesi için deniz tabanı, derinliği ve su özellikleri gibi birçok unsur göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır.Bu çalışmada amaçlanan; İstanbul Boğazı Marmaray Projesi çalışma bölgesinde yapılan hidrografik ölçme ham verilerinin ve sonuçlarının hassas bir şekilde elde edilmesidir. Çalışmalar yüksek akıntı hızına sahip ve dip topografyasının çok engebeli olduğu bir bölgede yapılmıştır.Çalışma bölgesinde sonar, akıntı hızı ve batimetri ölçümleri yapılmıştır. Bu ölçmelerde sonuçlara etki eden faktörler belirlenmiş ve hassasiyetleri araştırılmıştır. Tüm ölçüm çalışmalarının öncesinde ve sonrasında yapılan işlemler anlatılmıştır. Kurulum, ölçüm ve değerlendirme aşamalarında önemli adımlar belirlenmiştir. Batimetri ölçümlerine etki eden ses hızı ölçümleri farklı saat ve günlerde yapılarak kendi aralarında ve ölçüme etkisi konusunda karşılaştırılmıştır.Sonuç olarak; İstanbul Boğazı çalışma bölgesinde yapılan hidrografik ölçmelerde ölçüm öncesi ve sonrası yapılan adımlar incelenmiş, istenilen hassasiyetlerin elde edilebilmesi için yapılması gerekenler anlatılmıştır. Çalışma bölgesinde aynı konumda ama farklı saatte yapılan ölçümlerin sonuçlarının değiştiği görülmüştür.Anahtar kelimeler: Hidrografik ölçmeler, batimetrik ölçüm, İstanbul Boğazı, akıntı hızı, sonar, ses hızı ölçümü. Our country has got lakes approximate over than 900 km2 as per area, coasts over than 7000 km as per length, barrages, bonds about 1200 pieces and also is surrounded with seas of its three side. The hydrographic surveys are gained value because of increasing marine projects. Hydrography is a science that surveys and examines all the necessary basic items and issues these basic items practical using by mariners for cruising safety and easiness at the seas, rivers and other water sources together with surrounding these coastlines (BKK, 1973). In our country, within engineering projects such as shipyard, tube constructions etc., hydrographic surveys are performed actively. Other than this, in various studies such as current modeling, wave height computation, sea pollution, waste water sea discharging, natural gas and water pipe lines, various surveys are also carried out.Hydrographic survey application with synchronized using of all related equipments and testing of results are considerably difficult. For necessary accuracy, many components such as sea bed, sea depth and sea water conditions have to be considered.The purpose of this study is accurate obtaining of committed hydrographic survey raw datas and results at the working region of Marmaray Project at Bosphorus Strait. The studies were performed at the region which has got high surface current and rough sea bed topography.At the working region; the sonar, current velocity and bathymetric surveys were performed. In these surveys; factors which effect the results, were determined and their accuracies were seeked. Before and after all related surveys, performed processes were explained. The basic steps were clarified during installation, survey and processing operations. Sound velocity surveys which affect the bathymetric survey results directly, were performed at different times and were compared each other and regarding the effects to the survey.As a result; performed hydrographic surveys at the Bosphorus Strait, the steps was analyzed before and after surveys and for obtaining accuracies, the necessities was explained. At the working region, changing of survey results which were performed at the same position but different hours was appeared.Keywords: Hydrographic surveys, bathymetric survey, Bosphorus Strait, current velocity, sonar, sound velocity survey. 138

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    Authors: Isaac Ankamah-Yeboah; Claire W. Armstrong; Stephen Hynes; Bui Bich Xuan; +1 Authors

    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in the Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy on 18 May 2021, available online: https://doi.org/10.1080/21606544.2021.1924286. ecent events around the world have revealed varying degrees of public support for climate change and environmental regulation. Applying a latent class logit model, this study investigates Norwegian and Scottish public’s economic support for proposed deep sea management policies for novel attributes, identifying the presence of preference heterogeneity. Marine litter and health of fish stocks were the attributes with the highest values in absolute terms. This was followed by the size of the protected area coverage, whilst the creation of jobs was the least valued. The results highlight public support for the further collective action required by the EU in moving beyond the 2020 objective of achieving good environmental status of Europe’s seas, despite the low WTP values of the minority classes in each country.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    ZENODO
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: ZENODO
    Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Munin - Open Researc...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      ZENODO
      Article . 2021
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      Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy
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    Authors: Serge Berné; Gwenael Jouet; Maria-Angela Bassetti; Bernard Dennielou; +1 Authors

    International audience; A unique late Glacial–Preboreal record of changes in sea-level and sediment fluxes originating from the Alps is recorded in the Rhône subaqueous delta in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The compilation of detailed bathymetric charts, together with high-resolution seismic profiles and long cores, reveals the detailed architecture of several sediment lobes, related to periods of decreased sea-level rise and/or increased sediment flux. They are situated along the retreat path of the Rhône distributaries, from the shelf edge and canyon heads up to the modern coastline. They form transgressive backstepping parasequences across the shelf, the late Holocene (highstand) deltas being confined to the inner shelf. The most prominent feature is an elongated paleo-shoreface/deltaic system, with an uppermost sandy fraction remolded into subaqueous dunes. A long piston core into the bottomsets of this prograding unit allows precise dating of this ancient deltaic system. In seismic data, it displays aggradation, starting at not, vert, similar 15 cal kyr BP, followed by progradation initiated during the first phase of the Younger Dryas, a period of reduced sea-level rise or stillstand. The delta kept pace with resumed sea-level rise during the Preboreal (which is estimated at about 1 cm/yr), as a result of increased sediment supply from the Alps (melting of glaciers and more humid climate “flushing” the sediment down to the sea). Abandonment of the delta occurred around 10,500 cal yr BP, that is to say about 1000 yr after the end of the Younger Dryas, probably because of decreased sediment flux.

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    Marine Geology
    Article
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    Marine Geology
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Article . 2007
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2007
    Data sources: CNR ExploRA
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      Marine Geology
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      Marine Geology
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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      Article . 2007
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2007
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Keisuke Yoshida; Shiro Maeno; Shuhei Ogawa; Koji Mano; +1 Authors

    AbstractThis report describes a method of extracting vegetation conditions and topo‐bathymetric data of rivers using airborne LiDAR with near‐infrared and green pulsed lasers. Parameters related to flow resistance attributable to vegetation in rivers were found using point cloud data of LiDAR with support from supervised classification. Comparison of data obtained from simulations and observations was used to assess the applicability of the proposed method for examination of lower Asahi River flooding that occurred in Japan in September 2011. Results demonstrated that the methodology used herein can estimate flow resistance parameterisation of vegetation distributed on a reach scale. This study also used numerical tests to elucidate effects of established vegetation for flood control at the lower Asahi River bifurcation point using a historically important fixed weir. Results of these numerical tests demonstrated that the method can elucidate effective means of managing vegetation removal around the bifurcation point.

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    Journal of Flood Risk Management
    Article
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    Journal of Flood Risk Management
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Flood Risk Management
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      Journal of Flood Risk Management
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Louise Souquet; Carlo Corradini; Catherine Girard;

    International audience; A new conodont species, Siphonodella leiosa, is described from the lower Carboniferous pelagic limestones of the Montagne Noire (France), deposited in North Gondwana on a outer platform environment. Specimens were obtained from one level dated to the Siphonodella jii conodont Zone. The major difference from other siphonodellid conodonts known in this area is that the elements of this new species have a practically entirely smooth and unornamented platform, apart from the development of one or two low rostral ridge-like nodes. Similar morphologies were generally observed in shallow marine deposits of the same time frame from China, Russia and East and Central European areas. The new discovery reinforces the idea that ornamentation of siphonodellids is not only related to bathymetry, but that temperature could play an important role in the diversification and radiation of unornamented species during the Siphonodella jii conodont Zone.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Geobios
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Geobios
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ali Abbasi; F. O. Annor; Nick van de Giesen;

    In this study, a framework for simulating the flow field and heat transfer processes in small shallow inland water bodies has been developed. As the dynamics and thermal structure of these water bodies are crucial in studying the quality of stored water , and in assessing the heat fluxes from their surfaces as well, the heat transfer and temperature simulations were modeled. The proposed model is able to simulate the full 3-D water flow and heat transfer in the water body by applying complex and time varying boundary conditions. In this model, the continuity, momentum and temperature equations together with the turbulence equations, which comprise the buoyancy effect, have been solved. This model is built on the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with the widely used Boussinesq approach to solve the turbulence issues of the flow field. Micrometeorological data were obtained from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) installed on the site and combined with field bathymetric measurements for the model. In the framework developed, a simple, applicable and generalizable approach is proposed for preparing the geometry of small shallow water bodies using coarsely measured bathymetry. All parts of the framework are based on open-source tools, which is essential for developing countries. Water Resources

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    Advances in Water Resources
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Advances in Water Resources
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Macpherson, Enrique; Duarte, Carlos M.;

    We examined data on size of dominant demersal fish species in the SE Atlantic (44 species) and the NW Mediterranean (31 species) to determine whether there is a general tendency to increasing size towards deeper waters. Our results demonstrate significant positive size-depth relationships for most species examined (63% SE Atlantic and 74% NW Mediterranean). The relationships examined involved both a tendency towards greater size with increasing depth and a tendency toward smaller size towards shallower bottoms. The average ( plus or minus standard error) rate of increase in fish length with increasing depth was found to be 0.09 plus or minus 0.01 cm length (m depth) super(-1) for the SE Atlantic species and 0.06 plus or minus 0.007 cm length (m depth) super(-1) for the NW Mediterranean species. In addition, we found the slope and intercept of these relationships to scale approximately to the 3/4 power of the maximum and minimum fish size respectively, showing that interspecific differences in the nature of this relationship depend on the size range of the different species. Consideration of several hypotheses to account for this general pattern suggests that it reflects a migratory (or diffusive) movement towards deeper waters during ontogeny, where fish benefit from the extended lives and lower metabolism at lower temperatures. Peer reviewed

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    Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Article . 1991 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
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      Marine Ecology Progress Series
      Article . 1991 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Seema Paul; Jesper Oppelstrup; Roger Thunvik; John Mango Magero; +2 Authors

    This study explored two-dimensional (2D) numerical hydrodynamic model simulations of Lake Victoria. Several methods were developed in Matlab to build the lake topography. Old depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with more recent extensive data to produce a smooth topographical model. The lake free surface numerical model in the COMSOL Multiphysics (CM) software was implemented using bathymetry and vertically integrated 2D shallow water equations. Validated by measurements of mean lake water level, the model predicted very low mean flow speeds and was thus close to being linear and time invariant, allowing long-time simulations with low-pass filtered inflow data. An outflow boundary condition allowed an accurate simulation to achieve the lake&rsquo s steady state level. The numerical accuracy of the linear measurement of lake water level was excellent.

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    Fluids
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Fluids
    Article . 2019
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      Fluids
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Fluids
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Gal Akrish; P.B. Smit; Marcel Zijlema; Ad Reniers;

    Wave forecasting in ocean and coastal waters commonly relies on spectral models based on the spectral action balance equation. These models assume that different wave components are statistically independent and as a consequence cannot resolve wave interference due to statistical correlation between crossing waves, as may be found in, for instance, a focal zone. This study proposes a statistical model for the evolution of wave fields over non-uniform currents and bathymetry that retains the information on the correlation between different wave components. To this end, the quasi-coherent model (Smit & Janssen, J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 43, 2013, pp. 1741-1758) is extended to allow for wave-current interactions. The outcome is a generalized action balance model that predicts the evolution of the wave statistics over variable media, while preserving the effect of wave interferences. Two classical examples of wave-current interaction are considered to demonstrate the statistical contribution of wave interferences: (1) swell field propagation over a jet-like current and (2) the interaction of swell waves with a vortex ring. In both examples cross-correlation terms lead to development of prominent interference structures, which significantly change the wave statistics. Comparison with results of the SWAN model demonstrates that retention of cross-correlation terms is essential for accurate prediction of wave statistics in shear-current-induced focal zones. Environmental Fluid Mechanics

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    Journal of Fluid Mechanics
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    Journal of Fluid Mechanics
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Journal of Fluid Mechanics
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      Journal of Fluid Mechanics
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Matthew H. Alford; James B. Girton; Gunnar Voet; Glenn S. Carter; +2 Authors

    We report the first direct turbulence observations in the Samoan Passage (SP), a 40 km wide notch in the South Pacific bathymetry through which flows most of the water supplying the North Pacific abyssal circulation. The observed turbulence is 1000 to 10,000 times typical abyssal levels —strong enough to completely mix away the densest water entering the passage—confirming inferences from previous coarser temperature and salinity sections. Accompanying towed measurements of velocity and temperature with horizontal resolution of about 250 m indicate the dominant processes responsible for the turbulence. Specifically, the flow accelerates substantially at the primary sill within the passage, reaching speeds as great as 0.55 m s−1. A strong hydraulic response is seen, with layers first rising to clear the sill and then plunging hundreds of meters downward. Turbulence results from high shear at the interface above the densest fluid as it descends and from hydraulic jumps that form downstream of the sill. In addition to the primary sill, other locations along the multiple interconnected channels through the Samoan Passage also have an effect on the mixing of the dense water. In fact, quite different hydraulic responses and turbulence levels are observed at seafloor features separated laterally by a few kilometers, suggesting that abyssal mixing depends sensitively on bathymetric details on small scales.

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    Geophysical Research Letters
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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