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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Yan Wang; Andrew L. Stewart;

    Abstract Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous in the ocean and play a key role in exchanges across continental slopes. In this study the properties of wind-driven baroclinic turbulence are investigated using eddy-resolving process simulations, focusing on the case of retrograde winds that arises around the margins of the subtropical gyres. In contrast to a flat-bottomed ocean, over steep slopes eddies develop from baroclinic instabilities are confined to the top few hundred meters. Deeper in the water column baroclinic instability and vertical momentum transfer are suppressed, so wind-input momentum is exported toward the open ocean by eddies before traversing down to the ocean bed. Close to the sloping topography, eddy energy sourced from the upper ocean is converted to potential energy, steepening isopycnals and driving bottom-trapped prograde flows. This process is associated with upgradient lateral buoyancy fluxes and downgradient isopycnal potential vorticity fluxes, and cannot be reproduced via linear stability calculations. These properties of wind-driven shelf/slope turbulence are contrasted against simulations with flat bathymetry. The key differences described above hinge on the flow close to the steep topographic slope, which may be sensitive to the model’s vertical coordinate system. The simulations are therefore replicated using models that employ geopotential coordinates, terrain-following coordinates, and isopycnal coordinates. Quantitative inter-model discrepancies in the momentum and energy budgets are much more pronounced in the presence of a steep bottom slope. However, the key findings of this study are consistent across the models, suggesting that they are robust and warrant incorporation into parameterizations of eddy transfer across continental slopes.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ocean Modellingarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Ocean Modelling
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ocean Modellingarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Ocean Modelling
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hananto Kurnio; Subaktian Lubis; Hersenanto Catur Widi;

    The aim of the study is to understand the characteristics of a volcano occurred in marine environment, as Weh Island where Sabang City located is still demonstrated its volcanic cone morphology either through satellite imagery or bathymetric map. Methods used were marine geology, marine geophysics and oceanography. Results show that surface volcanism (sea depth less than 50 m) take place as fumaroles, solfataras, hot ground, hot spring, hot mud pool and alteration in the vicinities of seafloor and coastal area vents. Seismic records also showed acoustic turbidity in the sea water column due to gas bubblings produced by seafloor fumaroles. Geochemical analyses show that seafloor samples in the vicinities of active and non-active fumarole vent are abundances with rare earth elements (REE). These were interpreted that the fumarole bring along REE through its gases and deposited on the surrounding seafloor surface. Co-existence between active fault of Sumatra and current volcanism produce hydrothermal mineralization in fault zone as observed in Serui and Pria Laot-middle of Weh Island which both are controlled by normal faults and graben. Keywords: submarine volcano, hydrothermal mineralization, Sabang-Weh-Aceh. Tujuan kajian adalah memahami karakteristik suatu gunungapi yang berada dalam lingkungan marin, sebagaimana Pulau Weh dimana Kota Sabang terletak masih menunjukkan morfologi kerucut volkaniknya baik melalui citra satelit maupun batimetri. Metoda yang digunakan adalah geologi kelautan, geofisika kelautan dan oseanografi. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa volkanisma permukaan (kedalaman laut kurang dari 50 m) terdapat dalam bentuk fumarola, solfatara, lahan panas, mata air panas, kolam lumpur panas dan alterasi sekitar lobang kepundan dasar laut dan pantai. Rekaman seismik juga menunjukkan turbiditas akustik dalam kolom air laut akibat gelembung gas yang dihasilkan oleh fumarola dasar laut. Analisis geokimia menunjukkan bahwa contoh-contoh dasar laut sekitar lobang kepundan fumarola yang aktif maupun tidak aktif kaya akan logam tanah jarang. Ini ditafsirkan bahwa proses fumarola tersebut membawa REE melalui gas-gasnya dan mengendapkannya pada permukaan dasar laut di sekitar. Ko-eksistensi antara Sesar Sumatera aktif dan volkanisma Resen menghasilkan mineralisasi hidrotermal dalam zona sesar seperti teramati di Serui dan Pria Laot - bagian tengah Pulau Weh yang keduanya dikontrol oleh sesar normal dan graben. Kata kunci: gunungapi bawah laut, mineralisasi hidrotermal, Sabang-Weh-Aceh.

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    Article . 2017
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    Bulletin of the Marine Geology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Bulletin of the Marine Geology
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2017
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      Bulletin of the Marine Geology
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Bulletin of the Marine Geology
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  • Authors: Ralph H. Cross;

    Waves at sea limit both the resolution and accuracy of bathymetric surveys. Vessel roll introduces errors difficult to correct. By limiting operations to calm days according to criteria given, these errors can be controlled. Heave and roll appear as wiggles on the record, masking bottom irregularities. Speed limitations are given to assure seeing irregularities of a given size. Three tidal datum plan are defined, and indirect methods of obtaining offshore tidal data are described.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Peter T. Harris;

    Abstract Synoptic bathymetric surveys and current meter data collected over a sandwave field in Adolphus Channel (20 m water depth), Australia, yield average estimated celebrities of 0.75 and 0.25 m day−1, respectively. The sandwaves average 3.9 m in height, 102 m in wavelength and are comprised of up to 96% carbonate, consisting primarily of intact and fragmented calcareous alga Halimeda, benthic foraminifers, bryozoans and molluscs. The sand has a modal grain size of 0.8 mm. Current speeds measured 1 m above the bed averaged 0.42 m−1 and reached a peak of 1.36 m−1. Surveys carried out in September and February show that the sandwaves reversed their asymmetric orientation over this time interval, which is attributed to a change in the direction of the wind-driven currents during the monsoon season. The reversal of asymmetry was accompanied by a statistically significant change in the degree of sandwave asymmetry (ratio of stoss and lee slope lengths) whereas no change in mean wavelength was detected. The reversal is estimated to have required 47 days to occur based upon estimates of average sandwave cross-sectional area and bedload transport rates predicted from the current meter data.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Continental Shelf Re...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Continental Shelf Research
    Article . 1989 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Continental Shelf Re...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Continental Shelf Research
      Article . 1989 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Shusun Li; M. Jeffrtes; K. Morris;

    There are thousands of shallow lakes on the North Slope of Alaska. They are one of the most obvious manifestations of the hydrological system at work, and they play an important role in physical, biological and biogeochemical processes in the tundra environment. The depth of the lakes is a key determinant of these processes, yet few bathymetric data are available. The authors conducted a pilot study to investigate the ability of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) to derive bathymetry of the shallow lakes on the Alaskan North Slope. Because lake ice is transparent in the microwave region, they hypothesize that INSAR can see through the lake ice and reveal the topography beneath the grounded lake ice. The analytical result of a sensitivity analysis indicates that interferometric phase is more sensitive to lake bathymetry under grounded lake ice than to the land surface topography. A series of interferograms are derived for the area near Point Barrow, Alaska, from pairs of ERS-1 3-day repeat SAR images acquired in January through March 1994. Floating ice is identified by the noisy phase pattern and low coherence, which are due to the increase of the ice thickness in the interim. Grounded ice is identified by the clean phase pattern and relatively high coherence, because no further growth occurs once the lake has frozen to the bottom. The phase difference between the grounded ice and the surrounding land reflects the lake bottom topography. The final usefulness of this new INSAR application needs to be verified and validated.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Seema Paul; Jesper Oppelstrup; Roger Thunvik; John Mango Magero; +2 Authors

    This study explored two-dimensional (2D) numerical hydrodynamic model simulations of Lake Victoria. Several methods were developed in Matlab to build the lake topography. Old depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with more recent extensive data to produce a smooth topographical model. The lake free surface numerical model in the COMSOL Multiphysics (CM) software was implemented using bathymetry and vertically integrated 2D shallow water equations. Validated by measurements of mean lake water level, the model predicted very low mean flow speeds and was thus close to being linear and time invariant, allowing long-time simulations with low-pass filtered inflow data. An outflow boundary condition allowed an accurate simulation to achieve the lake’s steady state level. The numerical accuracy of the linear measurement of lake water level was excellent. QC 20191106. QC 20200129 PhD project

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Fluidsarrow_drop_down
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    Fluids
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Fluids
    Article . 2019
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2019
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    Fluids
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      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Fluids
      Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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  • Authors: Yusuke Uchiyama; Yoshiaki Kuriyama;

    Complex principal component analysis (CPCA) is applied to examine medium-term geomorphological behavior of an exposed sandy beach adjacent to a gigantic breakwater of the Port of Sendai located near a river mouth in the Sendai Coast, Japan, using a 12-year series of bathymetry survey data. The results of CPCA and conventional real-PCA demonstrate that erosion and subsequent accretion of the submerged terrace formed in front of the river mouth appear in the first mode of CPCA and have the most significant influence on the medium-term geomorphology of the study area. The first mode is mostly caused by northward alongshore sediment transport driven by wave energy flux, explained from the observed wave data. The second mode of CPCA demonstrates that the sediments previously discharged from the river return again into the nearshore region, and furthermore, the topography changes due to cross-shore sediment transport emerge in the third mode of CPCA.

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  • Authors: Assaf Azouri; Douglas S. Luther; Volker Roeber;
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Päivi Heiniö; Richard J. Davies;

    Abstract Several knickpoints have been identified along the present-day thalweg of a sinuous submarine channel–levee system (CLS) on the slope of the western Niger Delta using 3D seismic data. The knickpoints form as a result of gradient changes caused by the uplift of a thrust and fold belt orthogonal to the CLS. The channel gradient is lower locally upstream of folds causing turbidity currents within the channel to decelerate and deposit the coarsest sediment load. The basinward dipping fold limb causes local steepening of the gradient, which leads to increased flow velocity and turbulence within the turbidity currents. This enhances erosion at the base of the channel and leads to the formation of a knickpoint. If preserved, e.g., as a result of channel avulsion or abandonment, the deposits upstream of the knickpoints could constitute an important hydrocarbon reservoir element. They can, however, also be partially eroded by headward-migrating knickpoints, as the channel strives to regain its equilibrium profile, leaving remnant sand pockets preserved on channel margins. Although knickpoints are difficult to recognise from subsurface seismic or outcrop data, it is anticipated that they can form at any stage of the evolution of a channel–levee system and may be particularly important in controlling 3D channel architecture where channels intersect dynamically changing seabed bathymetry.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine and Petroleum...arrow_drop_down
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    Marine and Petroleum Geology
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine and Petroleum...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Marine and Petroleum Geology
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: G B J Fader; R O Miller; R C Courtney;
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Yan Wang; Andrew L. Stewart;

    Abstract Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous in the ocean and play a key role in exchanges across continental slopes. In this study the properties of wind-driven baroclinic turbulence are investigated using eddy-resolving process simulations, focusing on the case of retrograde winds that arises around the margins of the subtropical gyres. In contrast to a flat-bottomed ocean, over steep slopes eddies develop from baroclinic instabilities are confined to the top few hundred meters. Deeper in the water column baroclinic instability and vertical momentum transfer are suppressed, so wind-input momentum is exported toward the open ocean by eddies before traversing down to the ocean bed. Close to the sloping topography, eddy energy sourced from the upper ocean is converted to potential energy, steepening isopycnals and driving bottom-trapped prograde flows. This process is associated with upgradient lateral buoyancy fluxes and downgradient isopycnal potential vorticity fluxes, and cannot be reproduced via linear stability calculations. These properties of wind-driven shelf/slope turbulence are contrasted against simulations with flat bathymetry. The key differences described above hinge on the flow close to the steep topographic slope, which may be sensitive to the model’s vertical coordinate system. The simulations are therefore replicated using models that employ geopotential coordinates, terrain-following coordinates, and isopycnal coordinates. Quantitative inter-model discrepancies in the momentum and energy budgets are much more pronounced in the presence of a steep bottom slope. However, the key findings of this study are consistent across the models, suggesting that they are robust and warrant incorporation into parameterizations of eddy transfer across continental slopes.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ocean Modellingarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Ocean Modelling
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ocean Modellingarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Ocean Modelling
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hananto Kurnio; Subaktian Lubis; Hersenanto Catur Widi;

    The aim of the study is to understand the characteristics of a volcano occurred in marine environment, as Weh Island where Sabang City located is still demonstrated its volcanic cone morphology either through satellite imagery or bathymetric map. Methods used were marine geology, marine geophysics and oceanography. Results show that surface volcanism (sea depth less than 50 m) take place as fumaroles, solfataras, hot ground, hot spring, hot mud pool and alteration in the vicinities of seafloor and coastal area vents. Seismic records also showed acoustic turbidity in the sea water column due to gas bubblings produced by seafloor fumaroles. Geochemical analyses show that seafloor samples in the vicinities of active and non-active fumarole vent are abundances with rare earth elements (REE). These were interpreted that the fumarole bring along REE through its gases and deposited on the surrounding seafloor surface. Co-existence between active fault of Sumatra and current volcanism produce hydrothermal mineralization in fault zone as observed in Serui and Pria Laot-middle of Weh Island which both are controlled by normal faults and graben. Keywords: submarine volcano, hydrothermal mineralization, Sabang-Weh-Aceh. Tujuan kajian adalah memahami karakteristik suatu gunungapi yang berada dalam lingkungan marin, sebagaimana Pulau Weh dimana Kota Sabang terletak masih menunjukkan morfologi kerucut volkaniknya baik melalui citra satelit maupun batimetri. Metoda yang digunakan adalah geologi kelautan, geofisika kelautan dan oseanografi. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa volkanisma permukaan (kedalaman laut kurang dari 50 m) terdapat dalam bentuk fumarola, solfatara, lahan panas, mata air panas, kolam lumpur panas dan alterasi sekitar lobang kepundan dasar laut dan pantai. Rekaman seismik juga menunjukkan turbiditas akustik dalam kolom air laut akibat gelembung gas yang dihasilkan oleh fumarola dasar laut. Analisis geokimia menunjukkan bahwa contoh-contoh dasar laut sekitar lobang kepundan fumarola yang aktif maupun tidak aktif kaya akan logam tanah jarang. Ini ditafsirkan bahwa proses fumarola tersebut membawa REE melalui gas-gasnya dan mengendapkannya pada permukaan dasar laut di sekitar. Ko-eksistensi antara Sesar Sumatera aktif dan volkanisma Resen menghasilkan mineralisasi hidrotermal dalam zona sesar seperti teramati di Serui dan Pria Laot - bagian tengah Pulau Weh yang keduanya dikontrol oleh sesar normal dan graben. Kata kunci: gunungapi bawah laut, mineralisasi hidrotermal, Sabang-Weh-Aceh.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: DOAJ
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    Bulletin of the Marine Geology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Bulletin of the Marine Geology
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2017
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      Bulletin of the Marine Geology
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Bulletin of the Marine Geology
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  • Authors: Ralph H. Cross;

    Waves at sea limit both the resolution and accuracy of bathymetric surveys. Vessel roll introduces errors difficult to correct. By limiting operations to calm days according to criteria given, these errors can be controlled. Heave and roll appear as wiggles on the record, masking bottom irregularities. Speed limitations are given to assure seeing irregularities of a given size. Three tidal datum plan are defined, and indirect methods of obtaining offshore tidal data are described.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Peter T. Harris;

    Abstract Synoptic bathymetric surveys and current meter data collected over a sandwave field in Adolphus Channel (20 m water depth), Australia, yield average estimated celebrities of 0.75 and 0.25 m day−1, respectively. The sandwaves average 3.9 m in height, 102 m in wavelength and are comprised of up to 96% carbonate, consisting primarily of intact and fragmented calcareous alga Halimeda, benthic foraminifers, bryozoans and molluscs. The sand has a modal grain size of 0.8 mm. Current speeds measured 1 m above the bed averaged 0.42 m−1 and reached a peak of 1.36 m−1. Surveys carried out in September and February show that the sandwaves reversed their asymmetric orientation over this time interval, which is attributed to a change in the direction of the wind-driven currents during the monsoon season. The reversal of asymmetry was accompanied by a statistically significant change in the degree of sandwave asymmetry (ratio of stoss and lee slope lengths) whereas no change in mean wavelength was detected. The reversal is estimated to have required 47 days to occur based upon estimates of average sandwave cross-sectional area and bedload transport rates predicted from the current meter data.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Continental Shelf Re...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Continental Shelf Research
    Article . 1989 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Continental Shelf Re...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Continental Shelf Research
      Article . 1989 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Shusun Li; M. Jeffrtes; K. Morris;

    There are thousands of shallow lakes on the North Slope of Alaska. They are one of the most obvious manifestations of the hydrological system at work, and they play an important role in physical, biological and biogeochemical processes in the tundra environment. The depth of the lakes is a key determinant of these processes, yet few bathymetric data are available. The authors conducted a pilot study to investigate the ability of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) to derive bathymetry of the shallow lakes on the Alaskan North Slope. Because lake ice is transparent in the microwave region, they hypothesize that INSAR can see through the lake ice and reveal the topography beneath the grounded lake ice. The analytical result of a sensitivity analysis indicates that interferometric phase is more sensitive to lake bathymetry under grounded lake ice than to the land surface topography. A series of interferograms are derived for the area near Point Barrow, Alaska, from pairs of ERS-1 3-day repeat SAR images acquired in January through March 1994. Floating ice is identified by the noisy phase pattern and low coherence, which are due to the increase of the ice thickness in the interim. Grounded ice is identified by the clean phase pattern and relatively high coherence, because no further growth occurs once the lake has frozen to the bottom. The phase difference between the grounded ice and the surrounding land reflects the lake bottom topography. The final usefulness of this new INSAR application needs to be verified and validated.

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/igarss...
    Conference object . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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