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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Linke, Peter; Haeckel, Matthias;

    Poseidon cruise 518 (leg 1 and 2) took place in the framework of the Horizon 2020 project STEMM-CCS of the EU. The project’s main goal is to develop and test strategies and technologies for the monitoring of subseafloor CO2 storage operations. In this context a small research-scale CO2 gas release experiment is planned for 2019 in the vicinity of the Goldeneye platform located in the British EEZ (central North Sea). Cruise POS518 aimed at collecting necessary oceanographic and biogeochemical baseline data for this release experiment. During Leg 1 ROV PHOCA was used to deploy MPI’s tool for high-precision measurements of O2, CO2 and pH in the bottom water at Goldeneye. In addition, ROV push cores and gravity cores were collected in the area for sediment biogeochemical analyses, and video-CTD casts were conducted to study the water column chemistry. The stereo-camera system and a horizontally looking multibeam echosounder, both, for determining gas bubble emissions at the seafloor were deployed at the Figge Maar blowout crater in the German Bight. Investigations were complemented by hydroacoustic surveys detecting gas bubble leakages at several abandoned wells in the North Sea as well as the Figge Maar. Surface water alkalinity as well as CH4, CO2, and water partial pressures in the air above the sea surface were measured continuously during the cruise. During Leg 2 three different benthic lander systems were deployed to obtain baseline data of oceanographic and biogeochemical parameters for a small research-scale CO2 gas release experiment planned for 2019. The first lander was equipped with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), a CTD and an O2 optode. It was deployed for 6 days close to Goldeneye to obtain high resolution data which can be linked to the long-term measurements of the NOC-Lander. This lander is equipped with a suite of sensors to monitor temperature, conductivity, pressure, current speed and direction, hydro-acoustic, pH, pCO2, O2 and nutrients over a period of about 10 months with popup telemetry units for data transmission via IRIDIUM satellite telemetry every 3 months. Two short-term deployments of the Biogeochemical Observatory (BIGO) were conducted to study the molar ratio between oxygen and CO2-fluxes at the seafloor. Sediment cores obtained by gravity and multi corer were collected for sediment biogeochemical analyses and video-CTD casts were used to study the chemistry of the water column.

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    OceanRep
    Report . 2018
    Data sources: OceanRep
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OceanReparrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      OceanRep
      Report . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Adroaldo Dias Robaina; Marcia Xavier Peiter; Ana Rita Costenaro Parizi; Fátima Cibele Soares; +1 Authors

    No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a utilização crescente de sistemas de irrigação vem tornando cada vez mais importante a reservação de água através de barragens. Neste caso, é essencial a determinação do volume de água disponível nessas estruturas para o adequado planejamento dos sistemas irrigados e outorga para o uso da água. Atualmente, a determinação do volume é pouco frequente porque o método direto (batimetria) caracteriza-se por ser oneroso, além de exigir mão-de-obra especializada e tempo disponível. Diante do exposto, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar um modelo matemático para a determinação do volume de água armazenado em reservatórios de irrigação. O modelo matemático escolhido foi representado pela fórmula de Schoklisch, em que o volume de água de um reservatório é dado pelo produto da área e profundidade máxima em nível normal e o parâmetro de Schoklisch (η). Foi feita a análise do parâmetro η a partir dos dados fornecidos por 210 reservatórios com finalidade de irrigação, localizados na região da Campanha do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Através dos resultados, pode-se observar que o valor do coeficiente de Schoklisch (η) variou entre 0,47 e 0,53, apresentando um valor médio de 0,50 e desvio padrão de 0,05, considerando-se os municípios em conjunto. Observou-se, ainda, que todos os locais estudados enquadraram-se na classe de desempenho ótimo. Os coeficientes de determinação encontrados para as regiões de estudo foram superiores a 0,99. A relação entre o volume estimado e o volume observado em reservatórios demonstra o alto grau de correlação entre os valores testados e permite a recomendação do uso do modelo de Schoklisch para a determinação do volume de água armazenado em reservatórios de irrigação nas localidades em estudo.In the Rio Grande do Sul state, the irrigation systems for growing use contributes to make the water reserves through barrages more important. In this case, it is essential to determine the volume of water available in these structures for the appropriate projection of the irrigated systems and concessions for water usage.Currently, the determination of the volume is not much frequent because the direct method (bathymetry) is characterizes as onerous and besides demands specialized workforce and available time. Thus, this research had the objective to evaluate a mathematical model to determine the volume of water stored in irrigation reservoirs The mathematical model chose was represented by Schoklisch formula, where the volume of water of a reservoir is given by the product of the area and the maximum depth in normal level and the Schoklisch parameter (η). The analysis of the parameter η was based on the data provided by 210 reservoirs destined to irrigation, located in the Campanha of Rio Grande do Sul state. Through the results it is possible to notice that the Schoklisch (η) coefficient value varied between 0.47 and 0.53, presenting a average value of 0.50 and standard deviation of 0.05 considering the localities altogether. It was also observed, that all localities studied fitted in the class of optimum performance. The coefficients of determination found for the studied regions were superior to 0.99. The relation between the expected volume and the observed volume in reservoirs demonstrates the high degree of correlation between the tested values and allows the recommendation of the Schoklisch model for the determination of the volume of water stored in irrigation reservoirs in the localities studied.

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    Ciência Rural
    Article . 2009
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      Ciência Rural
      Article . 2009
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  • Authors: J. Vitorino; Sérgio H. C. D. Larangeiro; Francisco Nildo da Silva; José Eduardo Brasil Pereira Pinto; +1 Authors

    We describe the development of an operational forecast system for the NAzare Canyon area (W Portugal) which is presently being conducted at Instituto Hidrografico (IHPT). The system integrates a number of numerical models aimed to simulate and forecasts the wave conditions, the circulation promoted in the canyon area by wind forcing, interactions with the deep sea circulation or tides, and the littoral processes. The forecast system is planned to make an extensive use of the real-time observations collected by multi-parametric platforms maintained by IH in the Nazare Canyon area as part being developed sic guidelines for preparing papers for conference proceedings.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Micha Klein; Michal Lichter;

    Abstract The Global rate of sea level rise during the 20th century is generally agreed to be 1–2.5 mm/year. An examination of the four sea-level data series available for the Mediterranean shows a sea-level rise of a similar rate. A statistical analysis based on linear regression reveals this trend to be inconsistent over the century. The four time-series were divided into two different sets: the first consists of records prior to 1960, when sea level was rising consistently, and the second from 1961 and onward, when there was no significant sea-level trend. Dividing these two data sets into shorter time periods, by using additional data from 41 tide-gauging stations in the Mediterranean, showed a consistent trend prior to 1960. Between 1961 and 1989 the records show no significant trend. This can be due to a rise in mean surface atmospheric pressure of 1.74–3.31 hpa during that period, rather than an eustatic decrease in the rate of sea-level rise. From 1990 onward the sea level recorded in most Mediterranean tide gauges indicates a rise in sea level at a rate 5–10 times higher than the 20th century mean rate. While this trend should be regarded with some caution because of the relatively short data series, the trend observed coincides with the increase in global land and marine surface temperatures during the 1990s, and it is important to note that no other short sub-period in the data sets shows such an extreme trend.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Geomorphologyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Geomorphology
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Geomorphologyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Geomorphology
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Luca Carniello; Andrea Defina; Sergio Fagherazzi; Luigi D'Alpaos;

    A numerical model that combines wind waves with tidal fluxes in a tidal basin is presented and validated. The model couples a hydrodynamic finite element module based on the shallow water equations with a finite volume module that accounts for the generation and propagation of wind waves. The wave module solves the wave action conservation on the same triangular mesh used in the hydrodynamic module, thus efficiently reproducing the physical relationships between waves and tide propagation. The combined wind wave–tidal model is applied to the Venice lagoon, Italy. The highly irregular bathymetry of this tidal environment, characterized by deep channels, emergent salt marshes, and extensive tidal flats, suggests the introduction of specific hypotheses that simplify the governing equations with a noteworthy increase in efficiency and robustness of the algorithm. Particular attention is devoted to the dissipation of wave energy at the steep boundaries between channels, tidal flats, and salt marshes. Simulations of wave fields generated under specific wind conditions are presented and discussed. The model results are compared, with good agreement, to field data collected in different stations inside the lagoon of Venice. Finally, evidence of the complementary effect of tidal currents and wind waves on bottom shear stresses is presented using the results of different simulations.

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • Authors: Yukio Agatsuma; Hirokazu Yamada; Kazuya Taniguchi;

    Abstract Distribution of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was monitored monthly or bimonthly from April 1998 to May 1999 at a 100 m2 permanent site in intertidal to subtidal zones at depths of up to 2.8 m in Onagawa Bay, northern Honshu, Japan. Factors causing seasonal demographic changes were analyzed from vertical algal vegetation, sea urchin size, gonad development, and gut content. The highest density of H. pulcherrimus was found on algal turf on boulders at the depth of 0–0.3 m. Migration of adult sea urchins on crustose corallines at the depth of 0.3–2.8 m to the algal turf and subsequent inhabitation in more suitable boulder habitat are suggested from November to March, when Acrosorium polyneurum, which is their main food, grew dominantly. As the high gut content of crustose coralline of the sea urchins on crustose corallines resulted in significantly lower gonad indices, it is likely that migration is caused by their high foraging activity for A. polyneurum to ensure gonad development. Th...

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    Authors: Achim Randelhoff; Achim Randelhoff; Johnna Holding; Johnna Holding; +8 Authors

    Arctic Ocean primary productivity is limited by light and inorganic nutrients. With sea ice cover declining in recent decades, nitrate limitation has been speculated to become more prominent. Although much has been learned about nitrate supply from general patterns of ocean circulation and water column stability, a quantitative analysis requires dedicated turbulence measurements that have only started to accumulate in the last dozen years. Here we present new observations of the turbulent vertical nitrate flux in the Laptev Sea, Baffin Bay, and Young Sound (North-East Greenland), supplementing a compilation of 13 published estimates throughout the Arctic Ocean. Combining all flux estimates with a Pan-Arctic database of in situ measurements of nitrate concentration and density, we found the annual nitrate inventory to be largely determined by the strength of stratification and by bathymetry. Nitrate fluxes explained the observed regional patterns and magnitudes of both new primary production and particle export on annual scales. We argue that with few regional exceptions, vertical turbulent nitrate fluxes can be a reliable proxy of Arctic primary production accessible through autonomous and large-scale measurements. They may also provide a framework to assess nutrient limitation scenarios based on clear energetic and mass budget constraints resulting from turbulent mixing and freshwater flows.

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    OceanRep; Frontiers in Marine Science
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Marine Science
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2020
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      OceanRep; Frontiers in Marine Science
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Marine Science
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Carole Berthod; Etienne Médard; Patrick Bachèlery; Lucia Gurioli; +20 Authors

    Co-auteur étranger; International audience; Deep-sea submarine eruptions are the least known type of volcanic activity, due to the difficulty of detecting, monitoring, and sampling them. Following an intense seismic crisis in May 2018, a large submarine effusive eruption offshore the island of Mayotte (Indian Ocean) has extruded at least 6.5 km3 of magma to date, making it the largest monitored submarine eruption as well as the largest effusive eruption on Earth since Iceland's 1783 Laki eruption. This volcano is located along a WNW-ESE volcanic ridge, extending from the island of Petite Terre (east side of Mayotte) to about 3,500 m of water depth. We present a detailed petrological and geochemical description of the erupted lavas sampled by the MAYOBS 1, 2, and 4 cruises between May and July 2019 and use these to infer characteristics and changes through time for the whole magmatic system and its dynamics from the source to the surface. These cruises provide an exceptional time-series of bathymetric, textural, petrological, and geochemical data for the 2018-2019 eruptive period, and hence bring an invaluable opportunity to better constrain the evolution of magma storage and transfer processes during a long-lived submarine eruption. Integrating the petrological signatures of dredged lavas with geophysical data, we show that the crystal-poor and gas-rich evolved basanitic magma was stored at mantle depth (>37 km) in a large (≥10 km3) reservoir and that the eruption was tectonically triggered. As the eruption proceeded, a decrease in ascent rate and/or a pathway change resulted in the incorporation of preexisting differentiated magma stored at a shallower level. Magma transfer from the deep mantle reservoir is syn-eruptive, as indicated by transfer times estimated from diffusion in zoned olivine crystals that are much shorter than the total eruption duration. Our petrological model has important hazard implications concerning the rapid and stealthy awakening of a deep gas-rich magma reservoirs that can produce unusually high output rates and long-lived eruption. Sudden tapping of large crystal poor reservoirs may be the trigger mechanism for other rarely witnessed high-volume (>1 km3) effusive events.

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    Earth and Planetary Science Letters
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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  • Authors: Moisan, Emmanuel;

    The aim of this thesis is to develop a 3D modeling method for canal-tunnels in service, in order to document them accurately. The survey of the structures is carried out dynamically from a boat, with a set of cameras above the water and a sonar for the submerged part. The construction of the 3D model must combine data acquired in two different environments, in the absence of a GPS signal to locate the measurement system. The proposed approach makes full use of the capabilities of photogrammetric computation, both to build the 3D model of the vault and to estimate the trajectory of the boat, which allows georefencing of sonar point profiles. The application of the process to field test data acquired in the Niderviller tunnel allowed a first 3D model to be obtained. The analysis of the method involved an innovative static sonar measurement technology, requiring the development of appropriate treatments. It enabled to assess the capacity of the sonar for canal surveying, to evaluate the trajectories estimated using photogrammetry and to compare quantitatively the obtained model with a previously constructed reference mode; L'objectif de la thèse est de développer une méthode de modélisation 3D des tunnels canaux en service, afin de les documenter de manière précise. Le levé des structures est effectué en dynamique depuis un bateau, avec un ensemble de caméras au-dessus de l'eau et un sonar pour la partie immergée. La construction du modèle 3D doit combiner des données acquises dans deux milieux différents, en l'absence de signal GPS pour la localisation du système de mesure. L'approche proposée exploite pleinement les capacités du calcul photogrammétrique, à la fois pour construire le modèle 3D de la voûte et pour estimer la trajectoire du bateau, laquelle permet de géoréférencer les profils de points sonar. L'application du procédé en vraie grandeur dans le tunnel de Niderviller a permis d'obtenir un premier modèle 3D. L'analyse de la méthode a mis en jeu une technologie innovante de mesure sonar statique, nécessitant le développement de traitements appropriés. Elle a permis de jauger les capacités du sonar à numériser les canaux, d'évaluer les trajectoires estimées par photogrammétrie et de comparer quantitativement le modèle obtenu à un modèle de référence préalablement construit.

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    Authors: N. Christian Smoot;

    Abstract The Chinook Trough is a trans-Pacific megatrend. By using heretofore unpublished bathymetry and geophysical data, the trend of the Chinook Trough megatrend has been determined from the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Gulf of Alaska to the Izu-Bonin trench. The feature passes through the Emperor Fracture Zone, intersects the Krusenstern Fracture Zone at the Hess Rise, passes through the Emperor Seamounts, intersects the Mamua Fracture Zone and several unnamed NNW–SSE-trending fractures at the Shatskiy Rise. After an undetermined passage through Nadeshda Basin, it intersects another NNW–SSE-trending fracture zone, Kashima Fracture Zone, at Nelson Guyot, and ends as Uyeda Ridge. Instead of being a trough, the feature is a fracture zone, herein called a megatrend. The feature is colinear to the Mendocino and Clipperton Fracture Zones.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Geomorphology
    Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Geomorphologyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Geomorphology
      Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Linke, Peter; Haeckel, Matthias;

    Poseidon cruise 518 (leg 1 and 2) took place in the framework of the Horizon 2020 project STEMM-CCS of the EU. The project’s main goal is to develop and test strategies and technologies for the monitoring of subseafloor CO2 storage operations. In this context a small research-scale CO2 gas release experiment is planned for 2019 in the vicinity of the Goldeneye platform located in the British EEZ (central North Sea). Cruise POS518 aimed at collecting necessary oceanographic and biogeochemical baseline data for this release experiment. During Leg 1 ROV PHOCA was used to deploy MPI’s tool for high-precision measurements of O2, CO2 and pH in the bottom water at Goldeneye. In addition, ROV push cores and gravity cores were collected in the area for sediment biogeochemical analyses, and video-CTD casts were conducted to study the water column chemistry. The stereo-camera system and a horizontally looking multibeam echosounder, both, for determining gas bubble emissions at the seafloor were deployed at the Figge Maar blowout crater in the German Bight. Investigations were complemented by hydroacoustic surveys detecting gas bubble leakages at several abandoned wells in the North Sea as well as the Figge Maar. Surface water alkalinity as well as CH4, CO2, and water partial pressures in the air above the sea surface were measured continuously during the cruise. During Leg 2 three different benthic lander systems were deployed to obtain baseline data of oceanographic and biogeochemical parameters for a small research-scale CO2 gas release experiment planned for 2019. The first lander was equipped with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), a CTD and an O2 optode. It was deployed for 6 days close to Goldeneye to obtain high resolution data which can be linked to the long-term measurements of the NOC-Lander. This lander is equipped with a suite of sensors to monitor temperature, conductivity, pressure, current speed and direction, hydro-acoustic, pH, pCO2, O2 and nutrients over a period of about 10 months with popup telemetry units for data transmission via IRIDIUM satellite telemetry every 3 months. Two short-term deployments of the Biogeochemical Observatory (BIGO) were conducted to study the molar ratio between oxygen and CO2-fluxes at the seafloor. Sediment cores obtained by gravity and multi corer were collected for sediment biogeochemical analyses and video-CTD casts were used to study the chemistry of the water column.

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    OceanRep
    Report . 2018
    Data sources: OceanRep
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      OceanRep
      Report . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Adroaldo Dias Robaina; Marcia Xavier Peiter; Ana Rita Costenaro Parizi; Fátima Cibele Soares; +1 Authors

    No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a utilização crescente de sistemas de irrigação vem tornando cada vez mais importante a reservação de água através de barragens. Neste caso, é essencial a determinação do volume de água disponível nessas estruturas para o adequado planejamento dos sistemas irrigados e outorga para o uso da água. Atualmente, a determinação do volume é pouco frequente porque o método direto (batimetria) caracteriza-se por ser oneroso, além de exigir mão-de-obra especializada e tempo disponível. Diante do exposto, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar um modelo matemático para a determinação do volume de água armazenado em reservatórios de irrigação. O modelo matemático escolhido foi representado pela fórmula de Schoklisch, em que o volume de água de um reservatório é dado pelo produto da área e profundidade máxima em nível normal e o parâmetro de Schoklisch (η). Foi feita a análise do parâmetro η a partir dos dados fornecidos por 210 reservatórios com finalidade de irrigação, localizados na região da Campanha do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Através dos resultados, pode-se observar que o valor do coeficiente de Schoklisch (η) variou entre 0,47 e 0,53, apresentando um valor médio de 0,50 e desvio padrão de 0,05, considerando-se os municípios em conjunto. Observou-se, ainda, que todos os locais estudados enquadraram-se na classe de desempenho ótimo. Os coeficientes de determinação encontrados para as regiões de estudo foram superiores a 0,99. A relação entre o volume estimado e o volume observado em reservatórios demonstra o alto grau de correlação entre os valores testados e permite a recomendação do uso do modelo de Schoklisch para a determinação do volume de água armazenado em reservatórios de irrigação nas localidades em estudo.In the Rio Grande do Sul state, the irrigation systems for growing use contributes to make the water reserves through barrages more important. In this case, it is essential to determine the volume of water available in these structures for the appropriate projection of the irrigated systems and concessions for water usage.Currently, the determination of the volume is not much frequent because the direct method (bathymetry) is characterizes as onerous and besides demands specialized workforce and available time. Thus, this research had the objective to evaluate a mathematical model to determine the volume of water stored in irrigation reservoirs The mathematical model chose was represented by Schoklisch formula, where the volume of water of a reservoir is given by the product of the area and the maximum depth in normal level and the Schoklisch parameter (η). The analysis of the parameter η was based on the data provided by 210 reservoirs destined to irrigation, located in the Campanha of Rio Grande do Sul state. Through the results it is possible to notice that the Schoklisch (η) coefficient value varied between 0.47 and 0.53, presenting a average value of 0.50 and standard deviation of 0.05 considering the localities altogether. It was also observed, that all localities studied fitted in the class of optimum performance. The coefficients of determination found for the studied regions were superior to 0.99. The relation between the expected volume and the observed volume in reservoirs demonstrates the high degree of correlation between the tested values and allows the recommendation of the Schoklisch model for the determination of the volume of water stored in irrigation reservoirs in the localities studied.

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    Ciência Rural
    Article . 2009
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      Ciência Rural
      Article . 2009
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  • Authors: J. Vitorino; Sérgio H. C. D. Larangeiro; Francisco Nildo da Silva; José Eduardo Brasil Pereira Pinto; +1 Authors

    We describe the development of an operational forecast system for the NAzare Canyon area (W Portugal) which is presently being conducted at Instituto Hidrografico (IHPT). The system integrates a number of numerical models aimed to simulate and forecasts the wave conditions, the circulation promoted in the canyon area by wind forcing, interactions with the deep sea circulation or tides, and the littoral processes. The forecast system is planned to make an extensive use of the real-time observations collected by multi-parametric platforms maintained by IH in the Nazare Canyon area as part being developed sic guidelines for preparing papers for conference proceedings.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Micha Klein; Michal Lichter;

    Abstract The Global rate of sea level rise during the 20th century is generally agreed to be 1–2.5 mm/year. An examination of the four sea-level data series available for the Mediterranean shows a sea-level rise of a similar rate. A statistical analysis based on linear regression reveals this trend to be inconsistent over the century. The four time-series were divided into two different sets: the first consists of records prior to 1960, when sea level was rising consistently, and the second from 1961 and onward, when there was no significant sea-level trend. Dividing these two data sets into shorter time periods, by using additional data from 41 tide-gauging stations in the Mediterranean, showed a consistent trend prior to 1960. Between 1961 and 1989 the records show no significant trend. This can be due to a rise in mean surface atmospheric pressure of 1.74–3.31 hpa during that period, rather than an eustatic decrease in the rate of sea-level rise. From 1990 onward the sea level recorded in most Mediterranean tide gauges indicates a rise in sea level at a rate 5–10 times higher than the 20th century mean rate. While this trend should be regarded with some caution because of the relatively short data series, the trend observed coincides with the increase in global land and marine surface temperatures during the 1990s, and it is important to note that no other short sub-period in the data sets shows such an extreme trend.

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    Geomorphology
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      Geomorphology
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Luca Carniello; Andrea Defina; Sergio Fagherazzi; Luigi D'Alpaos;

    A numerical model that combines wind waves with tidal fluxes in a tidal basin is presented and validated. The model couples a hydrodynamic finite element module based on the shallow water equations with a finite volume module that accounts for the generation and propagation of wind waves. The wave module solves the wave action conservation on the same triangular mesh used in the hydrodynamic module, thus efficiently reproducing the physical relationships between waves and tide propagation. The combined wind wave–tidal model is applied to the Venice lagoon, Italy. The highly irregular bathymetry of this tidal environment, characterized by deep channels, emergent salt marshes, and extensive tidal flats, suggests the introduction of specific hypotheses that simplify the governing equations with a noteworthy increase in efficiency and robustness of the algorithm. Particular attention is devoted to the dissipation of wave energy at the steep boundaries between channels, tidal flats, and salt marshes. Simulations of wave fields generated under specific wind conditions are presented and discussed. The model results are compared, with good agreement, to field data collected in different stations inside the lagoon of Venice. Finally, evidence of the complementary effect of tidal currents and wind waves on bottom shear stresses is presented using the results of different simulations.

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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