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  • NEANIAS Underwater Research Community
  • French National Research Agency (ANR)

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pauline Letortu; Stéphane Costa; Olivier Maquaire; Robert Davidson;

    International audience; Between October 2010 and November 2017, surveys using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) were carried out every 4-5 months to monitor erosion on three chalk cliff faces with close structural characteristics in Normandy (the two Dieppe sites are abandoned cliffs while the Varengeville-sur-Mer site is an active one). The uniqueness of this paper is the comparison between these cliff sections and the significance of marine and/or subaerial controls in erosion. Beyond the quantification of annual retreat rates, which on the active cliff are currently 36 times greater than on the abandoned cliffs, this paper highlights the fundamental efficacy of marine controls in the current cliff erosion and the removal of falls (analyses of modalities of retreat and profile evolution according to a naturalistic approach). Subaerial processes appear to have a less erosive action than marine ones, because the studied abandoned cliffs show low erosion dynamics and have maintained a subvertical profile despite continentalization for between 30 to more than 120 years.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geomorphologyarrow_drop_down
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    Geomorphology
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Geomorphology
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geomorphologyarrow_drop_down
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      Geomorphology
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Geomorphology
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sylvain Jay; Mireille Guillaume; Audrey Minghelli; Yannick Deville; +3 Authors

    International audience; Hyperspectral remote sensing is now an established tool to determine shallow water properties over large areas, usually by inverting a semi-analytical model of water reflectance. However, various sources of error may make the observed subsurface remote-sensing reflectance deviate from the model, resulting in an increased retrieval error when inverting the model based on classical least-squares fitting. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic forward model of shallow water reflectance variability that describes two of the main sources of error, namely, (1) the environmental noise that includes every source of above-water variability (e.g., sensor noise and rough water surface), and (2) the potentially complex inherent spectral variability of each benthic class through their associated spectral covariance matrix. Based on this probabilistic model, we derive two inversion approaches, namely, MILE (MaxImum Likelihood estimation including Environmental noise) and MILEBI (MaxImum Likelihood estimation including Environmental noise and Bottom Intra-class variability) that utilize the information contained in the proposed covariance matrices to further constrain the inversion while allowing the observation to differ from the model in the less reliable wavebands. In this paper, MILE and MILEBI are compared with the widely used least-squares (LS) criterion in terms of depth, water clarity and benthic cover retrievals. For these three approaches, we also assess the influence of constraining bottom mixture coefficients to sum to one on estimation results.The results show that the proposed probabilistic model is a valuable tool to investigate the influence of bottom intra-class variability on subsurface reflectance, e.g., as a function of optical depth or environmental noise. As expected, this influence is critical in very optically shallow waters, and decreases with increasing optical depth. The inversion results obtained from synthetic and airborne data of Quiberon Peninsula, France, show that MILE and MILEBI generally provide better performances than LS. For example, in the case of airborne data with depth ranging from 0.44 to 12.00 m, the bathymetry estimation error decreases by about 32% when using MILE and MILEBI instead of LS. Estimated maps of bottom cover are also more consistent when derived using sum-to-one constrained versions of MILE and MILEBI. MILE is shown to be a simple but powerful method to map simple benthic habitats with negligible influence of intra-class variability. Alternatively, MILEBI is to be preferred if this variability cannot be neglected, since taking bottom covariance matrices into account concurrently with mean reflectance spectra may help the bottom discrimination, e.g., in the presence of overlapping classes. This study thus shows that taking potential sources of error into account through appropriate parameterizations of spectral covariance may be critical to improve the remote sensing of shallow waters, hence making MILE and MILEBI interesting alternatives to LS.

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    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Article . 2017
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    Authors: Berthod, Carole; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Gurioli, Lucia; Médard, Etienne; +27 Authors

    L’éruption au large de Mayotte a été intensément surveillée en appliquant des méthodes similaires aux éruptions sub-aériennes. Une étude pétrologique et géochimique des échantillons dragués couplée à de nombreux relevés bathymétriques, nous a permis de suivre l’évolution du magma au cours de l’éruption. Le trajet du magma change après un an de remontée directe (Phase 1), un réservoir magmatique sous-crustal et plus différencié est alors échantillonné (Phase 2). Un mois plus tard, le trajet change à nouveau et engendre une migration du site éruptif à 6 km au nord-ouest de l’édifice principal (Phase 3). La signature pétrologique des coulées de lave révèle à la fois une évolution par cristallisation fractionnée et un mélange syn-eruptif avec un magma téphri-phonolitique. Nous démontrons qu’une éruption à haut débit impliquant de grands volumes de magma basanitique et provenant d’un réservoir profond peut interagir avec des réservoirs plus superficiels et remobiliser le magma éruptible. Ceci a des implications significatives en termes de risques quant à la capacité de ces grandes éruptions à réactiver des réservoirs inactifs peu profonds provenant d’un système magmatique transcrustal et potentiellement situé à distance du site éruptif. The “Fani Maoré” eruption off the coasts of Mayotte has been intensively monitored by applying methods similar to those used for subaerial eruptions. Repeated high-resolution bathymetric surveys and dredging, coupled with petrological analyses of time-constrained samples, allowed tracking the evolution of magma over the whole submarine eruptive sequence. Indeed, after one year of direct ascent (Phase 1), basanitic magma switched to a different pathway that sampled a tephriphonolitic subcrustal reservoir (Phase 2). Later, the magma pathway shifted again in the crust resulting in a new eruption site located 6 km northwest of the main edifice (Phase 3). The petrological signature of lava flows reveals both an evolution by fractional crystallization and syn-eruptive mixing with a tephri-phonolitic magma. We demonstrate that high-flux eruption of large volumes of basanitic magma from a deep-seated reservoir can interact with shallower reservoirs and remobilize eruptible magma. This has significant hazards implications with respect to the capacity of such large eruptions to reactivate shallow-seated inactive reservoirs froma transcrustal magmatic system that could be located potentially at a distance from the high-flux eruptive site.

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    Comptes Rendus Géoscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Comptes Rendus Géosc...arrow_drop_down
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      Comptes Rendus Géoscience
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Many, Gaël; Bourrin, François; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pairaud, Ivane; +7 Authors

    An innovative experiment was carried out in the vicinity of the Rhône River mouth in February 2014. An instrumental package, composed of a CTD, a LISST-100 type B (1.25–250 μm) and a LISST-HOLO (20–2000 μm), was used to characterize the hydrological parameters and suspended particles properties (concentration, size, composition, shape and effective density) in the region of freshwater influence (ROFI) of the Rhône River. Besides, a coastal SLOCUM glider, equipped with a CTD and optical backscattering sensors at several wavelengths, was deployed to detail the spatial description of the hydrological parameters and some particle properties. Large river discharge (annual flood ~ 5000 m3 s− 1) and strong wind conditions favored the dispersal of the river plume on the shelf. Surface suspended particulate matter concentrations decreased rapidly seaward from 20 mg L− 1 next to the river mouth to 1.5 mg L− 1 at the shelf break. A persistent bottom nepheloid layer was observed across the shelf with concentrations decreasing from 8 mg L− 1 at the coast to 1 mg L− 1 at the shelf break. Observations showed that most of suspended particles were mainly flocculated in micro and macro-flocs (30–400 μm) in inner shelf waters. The particle assemblage in the Rhône River plume and in the bottom nepheloid layer became progressively finer seaward and the associated effective density increased from 370 to 1600 kg m− 3. Outside the plume, planktonic organisms increasingly contributed to the total volume concentration. Finally, we demonstrated the ability of gliders, equipped with optical backscattering sensors at several wavelengths, to describe the fine scale distributions of suspended particles, and provide an index of their size distribution.

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    Journal of Marine Systems
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Marine Systems
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Venkataramanan, Shashanka; Psomas, Bill; Kijak, Ewa; Amsaleg, Laurent; +2 Authors

    Metric learning involves learning a discriminative representation such that embeddings of similar classes are encouraged to be close, while embeddings of dissimilar classes are pushed far apart. State-of-the-art methods focus mostly on sophisticated loss functions or mining strategies. On the one hand, metric learning losses consider two or more examples at a time. On the other hand, modern data augmentation methods for classification consider two or more examples at a time. The combination of the two ideas is under-studied. In this work, we aim to bridge this gap and improve representations using mixup, which is a powerful data augmentation approach interpolating two or more examples and corresponding target labels at a time. This task is challenging because unlike classification, the loss functions used in metric learning are not additive over examples, so the idea of interpolating target labels is not straightforward. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to investigate mixing both examples and target labels for deep metric learning. We develop a generalized formulation that encompasses existing metric learning loss functions and modify it to accommodate for mixup, introducing Metric Mix, or Metrix. We also introduce a new metric - utilization, to demonstrate that by mixing examples during training, we are exploring areas of the embedding space beyond the training classes, thereby improving representations. To validate the effect of improved representations, we show that mixing inputs, intermediate representations or embeddings along with target labels significantly outperforms state-of-the-art metric learning methods on four benchmark deep metric learning datasets. Comment: Accepted to ICLR 2022

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    Other literature type . 2022
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
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      Other literature type . 2022
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2021
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  • Authors: Thinon, Isabelle; Lemoine, Anne; Leroy, Sylvie; Paquet, Fabien; +33 Authors

    International audience; Geophysical and geological data from the North Mozambique Channel acquired during the 2020–2021 SISMAORE oceanographic cruise reveal a corridor of recent volcanic and tectonic features 200 km wide and 600 km long within and north of Comoros Archipelago. Here we identify and describe two major submarine tectono-volcanic fields: the N’Droundé province oriented N160°E north of Grande-Comore Island, and the Mwezi province oriented N130°E north of Anjouan and Mayotte Islands. The presence of popping basaltic rocks sampled in the Mwezi province suggests post-Pleistocene volcanic activity. The geometry and distribution of recent structures observed on the seafloor are consistent with a current regional dextral transtensional context. Their orientations change progressively from west to east (»N160°E, »N130°E, »EW). The volcanism in the western part appears to be influenced by the pre-existing structural fabric of the Mesozoic crust. The 200 km wide and 600 km-long tectono-volcanic corridor underlines the incipient Somalia–Lwandle dextral lithospheric plate boundary between the East-African Rift System andMadagascar.; Des données géophysiques et géologiques ont été acquises lors de la campagne océanographique SISMAORE (2020–2021). Deux grands champs tectono-volcaniques sous-marins ont été découverts tout le long et principalement au nord de l’archipel des Comores : la province N’Droundé orientée N160°E au nord de Grande-Comore, et la province Mwezi orientée N130°E au nord d’Anjouan-Mayotte où des roches basaltiques de type popping-rocks suggèrent une activité volcanique possiblement actuelle à pléistocène. La géométrie et la distribution des structures récentes sont cohérentes avec un contexte régional actuel transtensif dextre. Leurs orientations évoluent d’Ouest en Est (»N160°E, »N130°E, »EW), suggérant pour la partie occidentale, une mise en place du volcanisme influencée par la structuration crustale préexistante. Le corridor tectono-volcanique de 200 km de large et de 600 km de long dessine une limite de plaque lithosphérique Somalie-Lwandle immature en décrochante dextre entre le système du rift est-africain et Madagascar.

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    Authors: Hans Agurto-Detzel; Yvonne Font; Philippe Charvis; Marc Régnier; +20 Authors

    International audience; We characterise the aftershock sequence following the 2016 Mw = 7.8 Pedernales earthquake. More than 10,000 events were detected and located, with magnitudes up to 6.9. Most of the aftershock seismicity results from interplate thrust faulting, but we also observe a few normal and strike-slip mechanisms. Seismicity extends for more than 300 km along strike, and is constrained between the trench and the maximum depth of the coseismic rupture. The most striking feature is the presence of three seismicity bands, perpendicular to the trench, which are also observed during the interseismic period. Additionally, we observe a linear dependency between the temporal evolution of afterslip and aftershocks. We also find a temporal semi-logarithmic expansion of aftershock seismicity along strike and dip directions, further indicating that their occurrence is modulated by afterslip. Lastly, we observe that the spatial distribution of seismic and aseismic slip processes is correlated to the distribution of bathymetric anomalies associated with the northern flank of the Carnegie Ridge, suggesting that slip in the area could be influenced by the relief of the subducting seafloor. To explain our observations, we propose a conceptual model in which the Ecuadorian margin is subject to a bimodal slip mode, with distributed seismic and aseismic slip mechanically controlled by the subduction of a rough oceanic relief. Our study sheds new light on the mechanics of subduction, relevant for convergent margins with a complex and heterogeneous structure such as the Ecuadorian margin.

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    Other literature type . 2019
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    OceanRep
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: OceanRep
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    Earth and Planetary Science Letters
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2019
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2019
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      OceanRep
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Earth and Planetary Science Letters
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Dutykh, Denys; Clamond, Didier;

    In this study, we propose an improved version of the nonlinear shallow water (or Saint-Venant) equations. This new model is designed to take into account the effects resulting from the large spacial and/or temporal variations of the seabed. The model is derived from a variational principle by choosing the appropriate shallow water ansatz and imposing suitable constraints. Thus, the derivation procedure does not explicitly involve any small parameter. 7 pages. Other author's papers can be downloaded at http://www.lama.univ-savoie.fr/~dutykh/

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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2011
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    Journal of Physics A Mathematical and Theoretical
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Chapman, Christopher C.; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste;

    The capacity of deep velocity estimates provided by the Argo float network to reconstruct both mean and eddying quantities, such as the heat flux, is addressed using an idealized eddy resolving numerical model, designed to be representative of the Southern Ocean. The model is seeded with 450 "virtual" Argo floats, which are then advected by the model fields for 10 years. The role of temporal sampling, network density and length of the float experiment are then systematically investigated by comparing the reconstructed velocity, eddy kinetic energy and heat-flux from the virtual Argo floats with the "true" values from the from the model output. We find that although errors in all three quantities decrease with increasing temporal sampling rate, number of floats and time span, the error approaches an asymptotic limit. Thus, as these parameters exceed this limit, only marginal reductions in the error are observed. The parameters of the real Argo network, when scaled to match those of the virtual Argo network, generally fall near to, or within, the asymptotic region. Using the numerical model, a method for the calculation of cross-stream heat-fluxes is demonstrated. This methodology is then applied to 5 years of Argo derived velocities using the ANDRO dataset of Ollitrault \& Rannou (2013) in order to estimate the eddy heat flux at 1000m depth across the Polar Front in the Southern Ocean. The heat-flux is concentrated in regions downstream of large bathymetric features, consistent with the results of previous studies. 2$\pm$0.5TW of heat transport across the Polar Front at this depth is found, with more than 90\% of that total concentrated in less than 20\% of the total longitudes spanned by the front. Finally, the implications of this work for monitoring the ocean climate are discussed. Submitted to Ocean Modelling

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    Ocean Modelling
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Ocean Modelling
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alicia Dalongeville; Emilie Boulanger; Virginie Marques; Eric Charbonnel; +18 Authors

    Abstract To mitigate the ongoing threats to coastal ecosystems, and the biodiversity erosion they are causing, marine‐protected areas (MPAs) have emerged as powerful and widespread conservation tools. Strictly no‐take MPAs, also called marine reserves, undeniably promote fish biomass and density, but it remains unclear how biodiversity responds to protection. Identifying which facets of biodiversity respond to protection is critical for the management of MPAs and the development of relevant conservation strategies towards the achievement of biodiversity targets. We collected 99 environmental DNA (eDNA) samples inside and outside nine marine reserves in the Mediterranean Sea to assess the effect of protection on 11 biodiversity indicators based on fish traits, phylogeny and vulnerability to fishing. We controlled for the effect of environmental heterogeneity (habitat, bathymetry, productivity, temperature and accessibility) using a principal component analysis, and for spatial autocorrelation due to potential unmeasured factors. We found a positive and significant effect of protection on only 3 out of 11 indicators: functional and phylogenic diversity but also the ratio between demerso‐pelagic and benthic species richness. Rather, total fish richness responded significantly and negatively to protection. We did not detect any significant effect of protection on threatened and elasmobranch species richness, probably due to their large home range compared to the size of Mediterranean marine reserves. Synthesis and applications: Our findings highlight the importance of looking beyond the mere number of species to fully depict and understand the effect of marine reserves on biodiversity and evaluate the effectiveness of conservation measures. Rather, we propose a dashboard of three eDNA‐based indicators that can provide an early signal of ecosystem deterioration or recovery. eDNA metabarcoding offers a powerful tool to supply site‐specific and standardized taxonomic‐, phylogenetic‐ and trait‐based biodiversity assessments, in complement to other classical techniques, such as visual censuses or video surveys, able to estimate species abundance but also individual life‐stage and size.

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    Journal of Applied Ecology
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Applied Ecology
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pauline Letortu; Stéphane Costa; Olivier Maquaire; Robert Davidson;

    International audience; Between October 2010 and November 2017, surveys using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) were carried out every 4-5 months to monitor erosion on three chalk cliff faces with close structural characteristics in Normandy (the two Dieppe sites are abandoned cliffs while the Varengeville-sur-Mer site is an active one). The uniqueness of this paper is the comparison between these cliff sections and the significance of marine and/or subaerial controls in erosion. Beyond the quantification of annual retreat rates, which on the active cliff are currently 36 times greater than on the abandoned cliffs, this paper highlights the fundamental efficacy of marine controls in the current cliff erosion and the removal of falls (analyses of modalities of retreat and profile evolution according to a naturalistic approach). Subaerial processes appear to have a less erosive action than marine ones, because the studied abandoned cliffs show low erosion dynamics and have maintained a subvertical profile despite continentalization for between 30 to more than 120 years.

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    Geomorphology
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Geomorphology
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sylvain Jay; Mireille Guillaume; Audrey Minghelli; Yannick Deville; +3 Authors

    International audience; Hyperspectral remote sensing is now an established tool to determine shallow water properties over large areas, usually by inverting a semi-analytical model of water reflectance. However, various sources of error may make the observed subsurface remote-sensing reflectance deviate from the model, resulting in an increased retrieval error when inverting the model based on classical least-squares fitting. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic forward model of shallow water reflectance variability that describes two of the main sources of error, namely, (1) the environmental noise that includes every source of above-water variability (e.g., sensor noise and rough water surface), and (2) the potentially complex inherent spectral variability of each benthic class through their associated spectral covariance matrix. Based on this probabilistic model, we derive two inversion approaches, namely, MILE (MaxImum Likelihood estimation including Environmental noise) and MILEBI (MaxImum Likelihood estimation including Environmental noise and Bottom Intra-class variability) that utilize the information contained in the proposed covariance matrices to further constrain the inversion while allowing the observation to differ from the model in the less reliable wavebands. In this paper, MILE and MILEBI are compared with the widely used least-squares (LS) criterion in terms of depth, water clarity and benthic cover retrievals. For these three approaches, we also assess the influence of constraining bottom mixture coefficients to sum to one on estimation results.The results show that the proposed probabilistic model is a valuable tool to investigate the influence of bottom intra-class variability on subsurface reflectance, e.g., as a function of optical depth or environmental noise. As expected, this influence is critical in very optically shallow waters, and decreases with increasing optical depth. The inversion results obtained from synthetic and airborne data of Quiberon Peninsula, France, show that MILE and MILEBI generally provide better performances than LS. For example, in the case of airborne data with depth ranging from 0.44 to 12.00 m, the bathymetry estimation error decreases by about 32% when using MILE and MILEBI instead of LS. Estimated maps of bottom cover are also more consistent when derived using sum-to-one constrained versions of MILE and MILEBI. MILE is shown to be a simple but powerful method to map simple benthic habitats with negligible influence of intra-class variability. Alternatively, MILEBI is to be preferred if this variability cannot be neglected, since taking bottom covariance matrices into account concurrently with mean reflectance spectra may help the bottom discrimination, e.g., in the presence of overlapping classes. This study thus shows that taking potential sources of error into account through appropriate parameterizations of spectral covariance may be critical to improve the remote sensing of shallow waters, hence making MILE and MILEBI interesting alternatives to LS.

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    Remote Sensing of Environment
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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