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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Angélique Melet; Maxim Nikurashin; Caroline Muller; Saeed Falahat; +4 Authors

    Internal tide driven mixing plays a key role in sustaining the deep ocean stratification and meridional overturning circulation. Internal tides can be generated by topographic horizontal scales ranging from hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers. State of the art topographic products barely resolve scales smaller than approximate to 10 km in the deep ocean. On these scales abyssal hills dominate ocean floor roughness. The impact of abyssal hill roughness on internal-tide generation is evaluated in this study. The conversion of M-2 barotropic to baroclinic tidal energy is calculated based on linear wave theory both in real and spectral space using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM30_PLUS bathymetric product at 1/120 degrees resolution with and without the addition of synthetic abyssal hill roughness. Internal tide generation by abyssal hills integrates to 0.1 TW globally or 0.03 TW when the energy flux is empirically corrected for supercritical slope (i.e., approximate to 10% of the energy flux due to larger topographic scales resolved in standard products in both cases). The abyssal hill driven energy conversion is dominated by mid-ocean ridges, where abyssal hill roughness is large. Focusing on two regions located over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the East Pacific Rise, it is shown that regionally linear theory predicts an increase of the energy flux due to abyssal hills of up to 100% or 60% when an empirical correction for supercritical slopes is attempted. Therefore, abyssal hills, unresolved in state of the art topographic products, can have a strong impact on internal tide generation, especially over mid-ocean ridges.

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    Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Geophysic...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Francisco, Francisco Gemo Albino; Sundberg, Jan;

    Marine renewable energy technologies have a great potential in supplying clean electricity to millions of people across the globe, if technical and economic conditions are in right. So far, ocean energy projects are commonly started by SMEs or educational institutions with limited budgets. Therefore, any effort to reduce expenses is of great value. One of the areas involving substantial expenses are the inevitable seabed inspection prior to deployment of marine renewable energy device. Detailed seabed inspections can also reduce the risk of associated with deployment of structures on uneven seabed, especially marine renewable energy devices with gravity foundations. By reducing the costs and risks of such surveys prior and during the installation phases, the feasibility of marine renewable energy projects can be more favoured and competitive. In this perspective, this study proposes a cost and time effective technique for seabed surveys. The proposed technique involves the use of high precision and inexpensive sonar systems and underwater optical cameras integrated into a versatile and compact subsea monitoring platform. It also involves simple and practical data acquisition and processing protocols that do not requires hi expertise for operation. The results obtained showed that high resolution bathymetric maps and detailed seabed inspections imagery can be acquired. This study concludes that a simple and inexpensive subsea monitoring platform comprising a multibeam, dual beam and video cameras can be effective for high resolution seabed inspection and bathymetric measurements for marine energy applications.

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    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
    Preprint . 2020
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      https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
      Preprint . 2020
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    Authors: Johnson, Clare; Fox, Alan; Cunningham, S; Fraser, Neil; +2 Authors

    Integrating novel ecosystem relevant fluxes with subpolar transatlantic circulation measurements from the Ellett/OSNAP array: Beyond the state-of-the-art. The new integrated physical and ecosystem flux array has: (1) enabled us to look at intra‐annual and seasonal variability for the first time (2) provided the first long‐term transport measurements of nutrients and carbon in one branch of the North Atlantic Current

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    Presentation . 2020
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    Other literature type . 2020
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      Other literature type . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: da Silva, JCB; J.M. Magalhaes;

    When Osborne and Burch [1] reported their observations of large-amplitude, long internal waves in the Andaman Sea that conform with theoretical results from the physics of nonlinear waves, a new research field on ocean waves was immediately set out. They described their findings in the frame of shallow-water solitary waves governed by the K-dV equation, which occur because of a balance between nonlinear cohesive and linear dispersive forces in a fluid. It was concluded that the internal waves in the Andaman Sea were solitons and that they evolved either from an initial waveform (over approximately constant water depth) or by a fission process (over variable water depth). Since then, there has been a great deal of progress in our understanding of Internal Solitary Waves (ISWs), or solitons in the ocean, particularly making use of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. While two layer models such as those used by Osborne and Burch[1] allow for propagation of fundamental mode (i.e. mode-1) ISWs, continuous stratification permits the existence of higher mode internal waves. It happens that the Andaman Sea stratification is characterized by two (or more) maxima in the vertical profile of the buoyancy frequency N(z), i.e. a double pycnocline, hence prone to the existence of mode-2 (or higher) internal waves. In this paper we report solitary-like internal waves with mode-2 vertical structure co-existing with the large well know mode-1 solitons. The mode-2 waves are identified in satellite SAR images (e.g. TerraSAR-X, Envisat, etc.) because of their distinct surface signature. While the SAR image intensity of mode-1 waves is characterized by bright, enhanced backscatter preceding dark reduced backscatter along the nonlinear internal wave propagation direction (in agreement with Alpers, 1985[2]), for mode-2 solitary wave structures, the polarity of the SAR signature is reversed and thus a dark reduced backscatter crest precedes a bright, enhanced backscatter feature in the propagation direction of the wave. The polarity of these mode-2 signatures changes because the location of the surface convergent and divergent zones is reversed in relation to mode-1 ISWs. Mode-2 ISWs are identified in many locations of the Andaman Sea, but here we focus on ISWs along the Ten Degree Channel which occur along-side large mode-1 ISWs. We discuss possible generation locations and mechanisms for both mode-1 and mode-2 ISWs along this stretch of the Andaman Sea, recurring to modeling of the ray pathways of internal tidal energy propagation, and the P. G. Baines[3] barotropic body force, which drives the generation of internal tides near the shallow water areas between the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. We consider three possible explanations for mode-2 solitary wave generation in the Andaman Sea: (1) impingement of an internal tidal beam on the pycnocline, itself emanating from critical bathymetry; (2) nonlinear disintegration of internal tide modes; (3) the lee wave forming mechanism to the west of a ridge during westward tidal flow out of the Andaman Sea (as originally proposed by Osborne and Burch for mode-1 ISWs). SAR evidence is of critical importance for examining those generation mechanisms.

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    https://doi.org/10.1117/12.224...
    Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.1117/12.224...
      Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Saurabh Chawdhary; Dionysios Angelidis; Jonathan Colby; Dean Corren; +2 Authors

    Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) power generation systems enable harvesting energy from waterways without the need for water impoundment. A major research challenge for numerical simulations of field-scale MHK farms stems from the large disparity in scales between the size of waterway and the energy harvesting device. We propose a large-eddy simulation (LES) framework to perform high-fidelity, multi-resolution simulations of MHK arrays in a real-life marine environment using a novel unstructured Cartesian flow solver coupled with a sharp-interface immersed boundary method. The potential of the method as a powerful engineering design tool is demonstrated by applying it to simulate a 30 turbine MHK array under development in the East River in New York City. A virtual model of the MHK power-plant is reconstructed from high-resolution bathymetry measurements in the East River and the 30 turbines placed in 10 TriFrame arrangements as designed by Verdant Power. A locally refined, near the individual turbines, background unstructured Cartesian grid enables LES across a range of geometric scales of relevance spanning approximately five orders of magnitude. The simulated flow-field is compared with a baseline LES of the flow in the East River without turbines. While velocity deficits and increased levels of turbulence kinetic energy are observed in the vicinity of the turbine wakes, away from the turbines as well as on the water surface only small increase in mean momentum is found. Therefore, our results point to the conclusion that MHK energy harvesting from large rivers is possible without a significant disruption of the river flow. Comment: 8 figures in 9 files

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    Other literature type . Preprint . 2018
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    Water Resources Research
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Preprint . 2018
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      Water Resources Research
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Charlotte Bay Hasager; Pauline Vincent; Jake Badger; Merete Badger; +4 Authors

    Offshore wind farm cluster effects between neighboring wind farms increase rapidly with the large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines. The wind farm wakes observed from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are sometimes visible and atmospheric and wake models are here shown to convincingly reproduce the observed very long wind farm wakes. The present study mainly focuses on wind farm wake climatology based on Envisat ASAR. The available SAR data archive covering the large offshore wind farms at Horns Rev has been used for geo-located wind farm wake studies. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to mainly three issues: the limited number of samples per wind directional sector, the coastal wind speed gradient, and oceanic bathymetry effects in the SAR retrievals. A new methodology is developed and presented. This method overcomes effectively the first issue and in most cases, but not always, the second. In the new method all wind field maps are rotated such that the wind is always coming from the same relative direction. By applying the new method to the SAR wind maps, mesoscale and microscale model wake aggregated wind-fields results are compared. The SAR-based findings strongly support the model results at Horns Rev 1.

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    Authors: Gaurier, Benoit; Druault, Ph.; Ikhennicheu, Maria; Germain, Gregory;

    In the main tidal energy sites like Alderney Race, turbulence intensity is high and velocity fluctuations may have a significant impact on marine turbines. To understand such phenomena better, a three-bladed turbine model is positioned in the wake of a generic wall-mounted obstacle, representative of in situ bathymetric variation. From two-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry planes, the time-averaged velocity in the wake of the obstacle is reconstructed in the three-dimensional space. The reconstruction method is based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and enables access to a representation of the mean flow field and the associated shear. Then, the effect of the velocity gradient is observed on the turbine blade root force, for four turbine locations in the wake of the obstacle. The blade root force average decreases whereas its standard deviation increases when the distance to the obstacle increases. The angular distribution of this phase-averaged force is shown to be non-homogeneous, with variation of about 20% of its time-average during a turbine rotation cycle. Such force variations due to velocity shear will have significant consequences in terms of blade fatigue. This article is part of the theme issue ‘New insights on tidal dynamics and tidal energy harvesting in the Alderney Race’.

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    Authors: Sandwell, David T.; Smith, Walter H.f.; Gille, Sarah; Kappel, Ellen; +4 Authors

    La profondeur des fonds marins est une donnée essentielle pour un grand nombre de domaines d'activité : scientifique, économique, politique. La bathymétrie – la science de la mesure des profondeurs de l'océan – a des applications aussi diverses que la gestion des ressources minérales et vivantes, l'aménagement des habitats sous-marins, l'implantation des câbles sous-marins et autres pipe-lines, l'extension des juridictions des pays riverains dans le cadre de l'article 76 de la convention des Nations unies sur le droit de la mer, etc. Sur le plan scientifique, des questions d'ordre fondamental – telles que la formation des fonds océaniques ou le rôle du relief sous-marin sur l'évolution du climat – passent par une connaissance globale et homogène de la topographie du plancher océanique. Les cartes globales de bathymétrie actuellement disponibles sont inadaptées pour bon nombre de ces applications, car de vastes zones océaniques demeurent inexplorées. Les sondeurs acoustiques multifaisceaux offrent la résolution adéquate, mais il faudrait plus de 200 années-navire pour couvrir l'ensemble des grands fonds, pour un coût de l'ordre de plusieurs milliards d'euros. En revanche, l'altimétrie satellitaire permettrait d'obtenir un modèle global de bathymétrie satisfaisant pour de nombreuses applications, en moins de six ans, à un coût inférieur à la centaine de millions d'euros. En effet, dans l'océan, les masses d'eau ont tendance à s'accumuler au-dessus des montagnes sous-marines, à cause de l'attraction causée par les reliefs. La surface de l'océan au repos (en l'absence de toute perturbation océanique) correspond au géoïde, une surface équipotentielle en tous points, perpendiculaire à la force de pesanteur locale. Les satellites altimétriques mesurent les variations de hauteur de la surface des océans, donc les ondulations du géoïde, associées aux variations de la topographie sous-marine. Les données altimétriques actuelles, combinées aux données existantes de bateaux, permettent ainsi d'estimer, de manière indirecte, les variations de topographie dans les longueurs d'ondes comprises entre 16 et 160 km. Une nouvelle mission altimétrique, spécifiquement dédiée à la collecte de données gravimétriques « haute résolution », permettrait d'accéder à des longueurs d'onde plus courtes, jusqu'à 6 km environ. Cet article détaille les objectifs pour lesquels ce gain en résolution est essentiel : • déterminer le rôle de la topographie sous-marine et de la rugosité des fonds sur la circulation globale, les échanges à l'intérieur de la masse d'eau, le climat, les habitats benthiques ; • comprendre les processus géologiques à l'origine des structures intraplaques, telles que les collines abyssales, les microplaques, les propagateurs et les volcans sous-marins ; • cartographier le champ de gravité et améliorer les systèmes de navigation inertielle ; • fournir une couverture gravimétrique « haute résolution », homogène et globale, des marges continentales. • asseoir les revendications de juridiction dans le cadre de la convention des Nations unies sur le droit de la mer. La résolution de la gravimétrie satellitaire se heurte à des limitations d'ordre physique (liées à la loi de gravité) et non instrumental. La technologie actuelle permet d'accéder à la résolution ultime de la méthode. Les spécifications techniques d'une mission spécifiquement dédiée à la gravimétrie « haute résolution » et à la bathymétrie sont beaucoup moins contraignantes et moins coûteuses que celles des missions océanographiques. La donnée fondamentale à acquérir est la pente du géoïde, à une précision de l'ordre du microradian (1 mm km−1) ; la détermination ultra-précise de la hauteur de la surface de l'océan n'est pas nécessaire. Pour atteindre la résolution ultime, il est proposé ici : – d'améliorer la précision de l'altimètre d'un facteur 2 par rapport à ceux qui ont été embarqués sur ERS-1 et GeoSat, ce qui est faisable actuellement, de manière à réduire le bruit dû aux vagues ; – de densifier les traces, pour porter à 6 km l'espacement à l'équateur ; – de porter à six ans la durée de la mission, afin de pouvoir réduire le bruit par sommation sur les traces répétitives ; – d'incliner les orbites à 60° (ou 120°), de façon à avoir la même précision sur les composantes nord–sud et est–ouest de la déflection de la verticale ; – d'améliorer les performances de l'altimètre près des côtes (celui-ci doit « décrocher » et « raccrocher » au plus près de la terre). Bathymetry is foundational data, providing basic infrastructure for scientific, economic, educational, managerial, and political work. Applications as diverse as tsunami hazard assessment, communications cable and pipeline route planning, resource exploration, habitat management, and territorial claims under the Law of the Sea all require reliable bathymetric maps to be available on demand. Fundamental Earth science questions, such as what controls seafloor shape and how seafloor shape influences global climate, also cannot be answered without bathymetric maps having globally uniform detail. Current bathymetric charts are inadequate for many of these applications because only a small fraction of the seafloor has been surveyed. Modern multibeam echosounders provide the best resolution, but it would take more than 200 ship-years and billions of dollars to complete the job. The seafloor topography can be charted globally, in five years, and at a cost under $ 100 M. A radar altimeter mounted on an orbiting spacecraft can measure slight variations in ocean surface height, which reflect variations in the pull of gravity caused by seafloor topography. A new satellite altimeter mission, optimized to map the deep ocean bathymetry and gravity field, will provide a global map of the world's deep oceans at a resolution of 6–9 km. This resolution threshold is critical for a large number of basic science and practical applications, including: • determining the effects of bathymetry and seafloor roughness on ocean circulation, mixing, climate, and biological communities, habitats, and mobility; • understanding the geologic processes responsible for ocean floor features unexplained by simple plate tectonics, such as abyssal hills, seamounts, microplates, and propagating rifts; • improving tsunami hazard forecast accuracy by mapping the deep-ocean topography that steers tsunami wave energy; • mapping the marine gravity field to improve inertial navigation and provide homogeneous coverage of continental margins; • providing bathymetric maps for numerous other practical applications, including reconnaissance for submarine cable and pipeline routes, improving tide models, and assessing potential territorial claims to the seabed under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Because ocean bathymetry is a fundamental measurement of our planet, there is a broad spectrum of interest from government, the research community, industry, and the general public. Mission requirements. The resolution of the altimetry technique is limited by physical law, not instrument capability. Everything that can be mapped from space can be achieved now, and there is no gain in waiting for technological advances. Mission requirements for Bathymetry from Space are much less stringent and less costly than typical physical oceanography missions. Long-term sea-surface height accuracy is not needed; the fundamental measurement is the slope of the ocean surface to an accuracy of 1 μrad (1 mm km−1). The main mission requirements are: – improved range precision (a factor of two or more improvement in altimeter range precision with respect to current altimeters is needed to reduce the noise due to ocean waves); – fine cross-track spacing and long mission duration (a ground track spacing of 6 km or less is required. A six-year mission would reduce the error by another factor of two); – moderate inclination (existing satellite altimeters have relatively high orbital inclinations, thus their resolution of east–west components of ocean slope is poor at low latitudes. The new mission should have an orbital inclination close to 60° or 120° so as to resolve north–south and east–west components almost equally while still covering nearly all the world's ocean area); – near-shore tracking (for applications near coastlines, the ability of the instrument to track the ocean surface close to shore, and acquire the surface soon after leaving land, is desirable).

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    Authors: Meneses, Rita; Greco, Andrea;

    Blue-Cloud is a European H2020 project aiming to federate and pilot innovative services for Marine Research & the Blue Economy. It will develop a marine thematic cloud for EOSC to explore and demonstrate the potential of cloud based open science for better understanding and managing the many aspects of sea and ocean sustainability. At the opening of the All Atlantic Ocean Research Forum (6-7 February 2020), Mariya Gabriel, the European Commissioner for innovation, research, education and youth, highlighted Blue-Cloud a key instrument for the sustainable ocean strategy. Blue-Cloud is the flagship project of the DG RTD Unit of the European Commission that will link the horizontal e-infrastructures supported by DG CNECT (e.g. EUDAT & D4Science) and DG GROW (e.g. Copernicus DIAS), long-term marine data initiative supported by DG MARE (e.g. EMODnet), research infrastructures supported by DG RTD and other recently funded thematic clouds (e.g. FNS-Cloud and BE OPEN). It federates leading European blue data management infrastructures (SeaDataNet, EurOBIS, Euro-Argo, ENA, Euro BioImaging, CMEMS and ICOS Marine), and horizontal e-infrastructures to capitalise on what already exists and to deliver the “Blue-Cloud” framework. The project holds great potential to deliver societal solutions via the implementation of five innovative demonstrators (www.blue-cloud.org/demonstrators), covering specific domains such as biodiversity and genomics, environment, fisheries and aquaculture. It is aware of the high importance of EOSC and data as a key resource for innovation and is working towards the establishment of a thematic marine EOSC serving the Blue Economy. Through a smart federation of data resources, computing facilities, and analytical tools Blue-Cloud aims to provide researchers with access to: 1) Blue multi-disciplinary data from observations, in-situ and remote sensing, data products and outputs of numerical models. 2) A blue Virtual Research Environment (VRE) with various services to support its users in undertaking world class science. What does Blue-Cloud bring to EOSC? A pilot thematic-EOSC as a role model for the development of other thematic clouds, with FAIR access to multidisciplinary data, analytical tools and computing and storage facilities that support multiple scientific research challenges. Services through pilot Demonstrators for oceans, seas and fresh water bodies for ecosystems research, conservation, forecasting and innovation in the Blue Economy. A mechanism to easily access and discover blue data, with APIs to access blue services that will complement EOSC base services providing blue thematic functionalities. Examples on how a framework like Blue-Cloud can address one or several of the policy challenges defined in many programmes, namely Bioeconomy Strategy, the Circular Economy Strategy, the Blue Growth Strategy, the Common Fisheries Policy, the Maritime Spatial Planning Directive and the International Ocean Governance Communication. A Global Blue-Economy community close to the EOSC vision, including the marine and maritime industry. The opportunity of bringing EOSC in the Blue Economy long-term vision via the policy oriented Blue Cloud Roadmap to 2030 which seeks a series of EU Calls for further development and uptake of the Blue Cloud by multiple VRE applications and connecting additional marine data infrastructures.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: P. Gleizon; Francisco Campuzano; Pablo Carracedo; André Martinez; +3 Authors

    Ocean wave energy has become the focus of governments and energy companies over the past decade. In spite of its unpredictability, this untapped source of energy appears to be a sustainable alternative to traditional sources of energy such as thermic and nuclear energies, or hydropower, all of which pose significant environmental and geopolitical problems. Open to the Atlantic Ocean at latitudes between 35°N and 65°N, the Atlantic Coast of Europe is blessed with one of the highest wave powers in the world—estimated to be between 33 and 76 kW/m wave crest. The European Commission has taken a proactive attitude towards encouraging and promoting the development of marine renewable energy during the near future. In this context, the European transnational project EnergyMare was commissioned to investigate the potential of marine renewable energy resources on the European Atlantic Coast as well as test innovative measurement techniques and promote the development of test sites. The targeted wave energy resources were assessed via a 10-year hindcast, using state-of-the-art spectral wave models WaveWatch III and SWAN set up on unstructured meshes or fine-resolution regular grids. The hindcasts were combined to simultaneously provide a holistic view of the wave energy distribution across the European continental shelf and fine-resolution maps of specific areas, in particular around archipelagos and complex coastlines, where wave characteristics can be affected by the presence of small islands, headlands, or irregular bathymetry, and at wave energy test sites. The domain size and timescale of the hindcasts enable a comprehensive description of the wave climate along the European Atlantic Coast , both in terms of its distribution and its seasonal and interannual variations. In particular, a comparison of wave activity at various coastal locations shows its dependence on latitude and arguably its more significant dependence on exposure to open Atlantic waters. Wave activity during the winter months is clearly predominant, but dominant peak activity was also occasionally observed during spring and autumn. In spite of increased winter wave activity over the past couple of years, data are insufficient to enable conclusions to be made about a persistent trend in the international wave climate. Continental-scale mapping of wave energy resources together with fine-resolution mapping of coastal areas provides an overview of the wave resources to help identify the best areas for energy or test sites. Such mapping also provides information about local wave characteristics and resources that can be used for diminishing installation risks or optimising a site by selecting the most appropriate devices or array configurations. In addition to evaluating wave resources, fine estimates of energy yield from a site may require a good understanding of the wave interaction in an array of converters where significant wave interference may be induced. Finally, long-term trend estimates or periodic re-evaluations of wave resources to address potential wave climate change will probably be necessary to achieve sustainable wave energy exploitation.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Angélique Melet; Maxim Nikurashin; Caroline Muller; Saeed Falahat; +4 Authors

    Internal tide driven mixing plays a key role in sustaining the deep ocean stratification and meridional overturning circulation. Internal tides can be generated by topographic horizontal scales ranging from hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers. State of the art topographic products barely resolve scales smaller than approximate to 10 km in the deep ocean. On these scales abyssal hills dominate ocean floor roughness. The impact of abyssal hill roughness on internal-tide generation is evaluated in this study. The conversion of M-2 barotropic to baroclinic tidal energy is calculated based on linear wave theory both in real and spectral space using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM30_PLUS bathymetric product at 1/120 degrees resolution with and without the addition of synthetic abyssal hill roughness. Internal tide generation by abyssal hills integrates to 0.1 TW globally or 0.03 TW when the energy flux is empirically corrected for supercritical slope (i.e., approximate to 10% of the energy flux due to larger topographic scales resolved in standard products in both cases). The abyssal hill driven energy conversion is dominated by mid-ocean ridges, where abyssal hill roughness is large. Focusing on two regions located over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the East Pacific Rise, it is shown that regionally linear theory predicts an increase of the energy flux due to abyssal hills of up to 100% or 60% when an empirical correction for supercritical slopes is attempted. Therefore, abyssal hills, unresolved in state of the art topographic products, can have a strong impact on internal tide generation, especially over mid-ocean ridges.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Francisco, Francisco Gemo Albino; Sundberg, Jan;

    Marine renewable energy technologies have a great potential in supplying clean electricity to millions of people across the globe, if technical and economic conditions are in right. So far, ocean energy projects are commonly started by SMEs or educational institutions with limited budgets. Therefore, any effort to reduce expenses is of great value. One of the areas involving substantial expenses are the inevitable seabed inspection prior to deployment of marine renewable energy device. Detailed seabed inspections can also reduce the risk of associated with deployment of structures on uneven seabed, especially marine renewable energy devices with gravity foundations. By reducing the costs and risks of such surveys prior and during the installation phases, the feasibility of marine renewable energy projects can be more favoured and competitive. In this perspective, this study proposes a cost and time effective technique for seabed surveys. The proposed technique involves the use of high precision and inexpensive sonar systems and underwater optical cameras integrated into a versatile and compact subsea monitoring platform. It also involves simple and practical data acquisition and processing protocols that do not requires hi expertise for operation. The results obtained showed that high resolution bathymetric maps and detailed seabed inspections imagery can be acquired. This study concludes that a simple and inexpensive subsea monitoring platform comprising a multibeam, dual beam and video cameras can be effective for high resolution seabed inspection and bathymetric measurements for marine energy applications.

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    https://www.preprints.org/manu...
    Preprint
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    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
    Preprint . 2020
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      https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
      Preprint . 2020
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    Authors: Johnson, Clare; Fox, Alan; Cunningham, S; Fraser, Neil; +2 Authors

    Integrating novel ecosystem relevant fluxes with subpolar transatlantic circulation measurements from the Ellett/OSNAP array: Beyond the state-of-the-art. The new integrated physical and ecosystem flux array has: (1) enabled us to look at intra‐annual and seasonal variability for the first time (2) provided the first long‐term transport measurements of nutrients and carbon in one branch of the North Atlantic Current

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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    Presentation . 2020
    License: CC BY
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    Other literature type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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